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Media Matters: January 18, 2002

18 January 2002, Volume 2, Number 3
OPPOSITION NEWSPAPER NOT PUBLISHED. The state publishing house refused to print the most recent issue of the newspaper "Mukhalifat" (Opposition) because its editors refused to comply with a demand that they substitute for a recent photograph of President Heidar Aliyev one taken 10-15 years ago, Turan reported on 8 January. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 9 January)

OFFICIAL WITHDRAWS LIBEL SUIT AGAINST JOURNALIST. Presidential administration head Ramiz Mekhtiev has withdrawn the libel suit he brought against Einulla Fatullaev, a journalist with the recently closed opposition newspaper "Milletin sesi," Turan reported on 11 January. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 11 January)

MINSK PROTESTS NTV REPORT ON ARREST OF BUSINESS EXECUTIVE. The Belarusian Foreign Ministry has sent a note to the Russian Embassy in connection with a report by Russia's NTV television on the recent arrest of Minsk Tractor Factory Director Mikhail Lyavonau, ITAR-TASS reported on 10 January. Ministry spokesman Andrey Savinykh told the agency that the report aired by NTV was "offensive" and distorted the real situation in Belarus. The Foreign Ministry summoned NTV correspondent in Belarus Pavel Selin and warned him that he may be stripped of his accreditation unless NTV makes relevant apologies, RFE/RL's Belarusian Service reported. Selin commented in his report on the arrest of Lyavonau that the Minsk Tractor Factory sells its tractors primarily in Russia, and added: "As known, President [Alyaksandr] Lukashenka vigorously opposes the mass penetration of Russian business in Belarus's profitable branches of economy. And in no less vigorous way he gets rid of those maintaining close economic ties with fraternal Russia." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 11 January)

U.S. JOINT COMMITTEE NOTES CZECH POLITICIANS' 'HOSTILITY' TOWARD FREE MEDIA. A memorandum from the U.S. Congress' joint Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe cites lingering problems in the Czech Republic with respect to freedom of expression and the press, CTK reported on 10 January, citing the commission's annual report. While the document concedes that "official censorship has completely eased and the Czech Republic has witnessed tremendous improvements," it adds, "Leading political figures, such as current Prime Minister Milos Zeman and speaker of the parliament Vaclav Klaus...are often openly hostile toward the media." The report makes reference to Zeman and his government's effort to "liquidate" the weekly "Respekt," which was announced on 22 October, and a case in which two journalists from the daily "Mlada fronta Dnes" are charged with abetting a crime for refusing to disclose their sources. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 11 January)

TV MAGNATE 'GIVEN NOTICE' BY BUSINESS PARTNER... The local tabloid "Blesk" reported on 11 January that a representative of TV license-holder CET 21 gave a two-month notice to dismiss Vladimir Zelezny, the head of Czech commercial television TV Nova, on 4 January. CET 21, which holds Nova's license, is generally seen to be under Zelezny's direct or indirect control. Petr Krsak's authority for issuing such a dismissal was not immediately clear, but a spokesman for Zelezny's TV Nova scoffed at the move as "ridiculous" and not worthy of comment. Krsak accuses Zelezny, who has charges of attempting to harm a creditor and international arbitration rulings pending against him, of grossly overstepping his authority in using his weekly "Call the Director" program to solve personal problems. He also says Zelezny improperly promoted his new Slovak television venture on TV Nova. Krsak calls on Zelezny to leave his office by the end of March, CTK added. The last business partner that sought to dismiss Zelezny from TV Nova, a subsidiary of Ronald Lauder's CME group, has found itself locked out of the local television market as legal challenges continue. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 11 January)

...AND DETAINED AGAIN. Police briefly detained Vladimir Zelezny on 14 January and filed new charges against him, but later released the media mogul on health grounds, CTK reported. Zelezny's lawyer, Ondrej Kuchar, and Edita Panuskova, who works in the office of Ales Rozenhal -- also a lawyer for Zelezny -- were detained after being questioned together with the TV Nova owner. A spokeswoman for the Financial Crime and State Protection Squad said Zelezny is suspected of illegal transfer of his property with the purpose of harming a creditor, dpa reported. Last year, similar charges were filed against Zelezny and one of his lawyers stemming from an alleged money transfer to a foundation in Liechtenstein. The investigators said Zelezny shifted the cash to Liechtenstein to dodge a $28 million debt to his former business partner, U.S. billionaire Ronald Lauder. Last year, an international arbitration court ordered Zelezny to pay Lauder compensation for the 1999 takeover of TV Nova, which they previously operated jointly. Separately, Lauder won another arbitration, which ruled that the Czech government must pay him $500 million. Zelezny was released by court order after spending several days in jail. Following his release, he met with parliamentary speaker Vaclav Klaus, who said the charges against Zelezny are false. Last weekend, dozens of Czech intellectuals signed an open letter to Klaus, demanding that he clarify his links to Zelezny. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 15 January)

HEAD OF ESTONIAN TELEVISION DISMISSED. The Estonian Broadcasting Council fired state-owned Eesti Television (ETV) board chairman Aare Urm on 15 January, ETA reported. The decision preempted his plans to resign after the Eurovision song competition. Urm was charged with being unable to cooperate with the broadcasting council and ignoring laws by continuing the sale of airtime for commercials until the end of last year, even though the new broadcasting act abolished commercials on ETV beginning on 1 July 2001. He was also accused of increasing the broadcasting share of entertainment and sports, such as purchasing the right to air Formula I racing, at the expense of education, culture, and public information programs. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 16 January)

RADIO STATION FINED FOR SUPPORTING MIEP VIEWS. The National Radio and Television Board (ORTT) levied a 2.3 million forint ($8,400) fine on Pannon Radio on 10 January for broadcasting comments and programs that overtly advocated the positions of the extremist Hungarian Justice and Life Party. The board said the radio station had encouraged hatred, promoted anti-Semitic views, and grossly insulted ethnic minorities. Broadcasters are prohibited under the Media Act from functioning as advocates of political parties or movements, although this was the first instance in which the ORTT has imposed a sanction for a violation of the ban. In other news, the Pest Central District Court issued a preliminary ruling on 10 January ordering the weekly "Magyar Demokrata" and the daily "Magyar Nemzet" to publish corrections for falsely reporting that Peter Medgyessy, the opposition Socialist Party's candidate for prime minister, and his company had offered or distributed payments to Socialist deputies in the 5th District local authority in connection with the sale of Gresham Palace. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 11 January)

EXILED WRITER RECEIVES PRESTIGIOUS ITALIAN AWARD. Norman Manea was awarded the Noninio International Prize for his lifetime literary activity, a press release of the Bard College announced on 12 January. Manea, who left Romania in 1986, is currently a professor at the college in Annandale-on-Hudson, New York. He was born in the Romanian province of Bukovina and was deported in 1941 by the Antonescu regime to a concentration camp in Transnistria together with his family, losing his paternal grandparents in the Holocaust. He has been subjected to frequent attacks in Romania since the fall of the communist regime due to two articles published in "The New Republic" in which he unveiled the fascist past of History of Religion scholar Mircea Eliade and the Eliade cult in the postcommunist period. Manea's works have been translated into more than 10 languages and he has been awarded several other prestigious awards and honors, among which are the MacArthur Fellowship Award and the Guggenheim Fellowship. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 15 January)

PREMIER REFUTES INTERNET ALLEGATIONS ON ILLICIT LINKS. Adrian Nastase said on 16 January that he has no intention of engaging in a dispute with "anonymous persons" who cannot be sued because they hide behind "anonymous documents," RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported. Nastase made the comments in response to a document distributed via the Internet to several Romanian publications in which he and the ruling Party of Social Democracy in Romania are accused of links with businessmen suspected of large-scale corruption. Nastase said the document called "Armageddon II" is a "diversion" aimed at both deflecting the attention of public opinion from the main objectives that must be pursued at present -- among them NATO membership -- and at undermining his cabinet's effort to fight corruption. It is no mere coincidence, the premier said, that the document was distributed at a time when the cabinet is planning to set up the National Anticorruption Prosecution authority. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 January)

PUTIN MAKES AMBIGUOUS STATEMENTS ON TV-6 AFFAIR... The day before his state visit to Poland, President Putin told Polish journalists on 15 January that the government will not interfere in the situation around TV-6. Putin described the conflict as "an argument between totally independent economic structures, with which the state has virtually nothing to do." However, the following day, speaking at a press conference in Paris, Putin added, "at some point, the so-called oligarchs took control over a number of media outlets. We tried to get them back if state interests were involved," Interfax reported on 16 January. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 16 January 2002)

...AS TV-6 JOURNALISTS TRY TO MAKE A DEAL WITH THE MEDIA MINISTRY TO SURVIVE... The Media Ministry received a letter on 14 January signed by Pavel Korchagin, the executive director of TV-6, offering to give up the television's broadcasting license earlier than required to make it possible for the license to be transferred to the journalists and managers working at the station, reported. Those employees hope to create a new channel on the basis of the old one. In an interview with NTV and Ekho Moskvy radio the same day, Media Minister Mikhail Lesin said he is not yet sure when the channel's broadcasting license will be revoked, but it is possible that TV-6's broadcasting license will be annulled as soon as the Liquidation Commission is created. After the liquidation process is completed, an open competition for the license will be held. The workers' collective of TV-6 has already registered as a new legal entity and are ready to apply for a license. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 15 January 2002)

...WITHOUT BEREZOVSKY. TV-6 announced on 15 January that it intends to set up a new television company that will be made up of 50 journalists headed by TV-6's current general director, Yevgenii Kiselev. In an interview with "Kommersant-Daily" on 15 January, TV-6 Executive Director Pavel Korchagin explained that TV-6's current chief shareholder, Boris Berezovsky, will not be a part of the new company. Korchagin also told the newspaper that TV-6 has already held discussions with Lesin regarding its future and hopes to get a provisional broadcasting license within a week. The website commented that the biggest question regarding Lesin's scheme for TV-6 is how will it be financed -- a question it said Korchagin has been trying to avoid answering. In the same issue of "Kommersant-Daily" on 15 January, the Berezovsky, who holds a 75 percent stake in TV-6, said: "I see Lesin's moves as a game with the journalists.... For Lesin, the No. 1 aim has been achieved: Berezovsky will not be a shareholder of the new company. Now he has to ensure the obedience of the journalists," the businessman added. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 16 January 2002)

PREMIER FOLLOWS PRESIDENT'S LEAD WITH RHETORICAL SUPPORT FOR TV-6's WORKERS, NOT OWNER... Mikhail Kasyanov declared at a government briefing on 16 January that he supports the workers' collective of TV-6 and is sure that it will win the tender for the station's broadcasting rights, Russian media reported. Kasyanov's comments followed those made by President Putin at a press conference in Paris the same day, where he argued that "TV-6 for several years operated with a loss, which sparked the legitimate frustration of one of its shareholders," an allusion to LUKoil-Garant. "Vremya MN" noted on 16 January that Video International had completed a prognosis for TV-6 for 2002 that concluded TV-6 would become completely self-financing. Video International is a company that was formally headed by Media Minister Lesin. And it was Lesin who encouraged TV-6's workers to form a new legal entity -- without embattled oligarch Boris Berezovsky -- in order to bid for the station's broadcasting rights. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 January 2002)

...AS COMMENTATOR SAYS PUTIN IS TRYING TO CREATE A POLICE STATE... Meanwhile, in a piece in "Vremya MN" on 15 January, Leonid Radzikhovskii, formerly of "Segodnya," argued that although TV-6 is not an "opposition channel," the move to close it is part of a larger effort by Putin to "carefully destroy the system established by [former Russian President Boris] Yeltsin." According to Radzikhovskii, the elimination of TV-6 along with the case against Sibur officials, the dismissal of Railways Minister Nikolai Aksenenko, and the pressure on presidential administration head Aleksandr Voloshin are all "elements in a larger picture." Radzikhovskii asserted that Putin is trying to create a "police state" that will put the "stolen Russia" back together again. But he asked: "Where is Putin going to find these 'honest policemen?' And what is he going to do with them afterward?" ("RFE/RL Newsline," 16 January 2002)

...AND FOREIGN MINISTRY REJECTS U.S. CRITICISM. On 14 January, the Russian Foreign Ministry responded to an earlier statement about TV-6 by the U.S. State Department. On 11 January, U.S. State Department spokesman Richard Boucher said that "the quick and unusual manner" in which the Supreme Arbitration Court heard the cases "added to the already strong appearance of political pressure in the judicial process against Russia's independent media." The Foreign Ministry accused the U.S. of indulging in "double standards regarding freedom of the press in Russia." According to the ministry, the TV-6 dispute is "above all, an economic dispute between its shareholders." And the ministry added, "TV-6 is by far not the only private television channel broadcasting in Russia, as some are trying to assert." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 15 January 2002)

FATE OF REGIONAL TV STATIONS HANGS IN THE BALANCE ALONG WITH FATE OF TV-6. Because of the recent court decision upholding the ordered liquidation of TV-6, a number of regional television stations find themselves in an awkward position. For example, TV-6 Perm, which is a sister company of the Moscow-based TV-6, could lose its frequency and its broadcasting license, reported on 15 January citing Region-Inform-Perm. Chief editor for TV-6 Perm Yelena Suntsovaya said that currently everything depends of the good will of Media Minister Lesin. TV-6 Perm's General Director Boris Kuzmin said that his station feels powerless to influence the process occurring with the liquidation of all media associated with Boris Berezovsky. According to, there are 16 more regional television stations in a situation similar to TV-6 Perm. In addition, there are more than 200 network partners in various cities across Russia. ("RFE/RL Russian Federation Report," 16 January)

NTV SEEKS CONTROL OVER ITS WEB DOMAIN. NTV television said it will continue to fight to get exclusive rights to the domain name, RBK reported on 16 January. NTV was informed on 14 January that the Moscow Arbitration Court rejected the appeal the company had made to retain those rights. On 8 January 1999, the Internet company registered the domain name at the Russian Institute for the Development of Public Networks, but the name was later transferred to the Memonet company, which is part of Media-MOST. For its part, NTV registered its trademark NTV at the Russian Patent Institute on 11 April 2001. Last summer, the domain name was acquired by the German company Rowe, and NTV filed a lawsuit for its return, RBK reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 16 January 2002)

GAZPROM DECLINES TO COMMENT ON SALE OF NTV SHARES. Gazprom officials refused comment on the reported sale of the company's stake in the NTV television company, RBK reported on 15 January. Gazprom-Media holds a 65 percent stake in NTV. Rumors abound in Moscow that the deal has already been completed, although no information on the potential buyer or on the volume of the stake was available as of 16 January. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 16 January 2002)

PASKO REJECTS RUSSIAN PRESIDENT'S OFFER TO CONSIDER PARDON. Military journalist Grigorii Pasko's lawyer, Anatolii Pyshkin, announced on 16 January that his client has declined an offer by President Putin to review his sentence for espionage for a possible pardon, RFE/RL's Russian Service reported. In reference to the offer Putin made in front of journalists in Warsaw the same day, Pyshkin said Pasko "welcomes Putin's proposal," but will not seek a pardon as he does not consider himself guilty and is demanding complete exoneration. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 16 January)

FEDERATION COUNCIL HEAD RALLIES BEHIND PASKO... Sergei Mironov said on 10 January that he is ready to personally step in as Grigorii Pasko's "guarantor" if the military journalist is released from custody, RIA-Novosti reported. Mironov argued that the information published by Pasko was not classified military information, and that in Pasko's case "world public opinion has long defined who is guilty and on whose side lies the truth." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 11 January)

...BUT FOREIGN MINISTRY PROTESTS U.S. OFFICIALS' PRESENCE AT PASKO PICKET. On 14 January, the Foreign Ministry sent a diplomatic note to the U.S. Embassy protesting what it called "inadmissible actions by members of the staff of the U.S. Consulate General in Vladivostok," RIA-Novosti reported. The ministry complained that U.S. Consul General James Shumaker and political consul Alexander Hamilton attended a 10 January picket protesting the recent prison sentence handed down to former military journalist and environmental activist Grigorii Pasko. According to AFP, the ministry warned that it may take "corresponding" measures, the nature of which it did not specify. According to RIA-Novosti, the U.S. Consulate General reported that the two embassy officials were merely "observers" at the protest rather than participants. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 15 January 2002)

MEDIA MINISTER WINS ANOTHER COURT CASE. Lesin won a lawsuit on 14 January against Igor Malashenko, the first deputy chairman of the board of directors of Media-MOST, Russian agencies reported. Lesin said Malashenko had defamed him when he told a television audience in September 2000 that Lesin had offered Media-MOST head Vladimir Gusinsky release from jail in exchange for control over NTV. The court ordered Malashenko to correct the statement on air. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 15 January 2002)

INTERNET STATISTICS FOR RUSSIA... Number of people using the Internet regularly: around 3 million; As a percentage of the total population: 2 percent; Number of people using computers: 9 million; As a percentage of the total population: 6 percent; Number of people who have used the Internet at least once: 4.3 million; As a percentage of the total population: almost 3 percent; ("Kommersant-Daily," 14 December 2001 and "RFE/RL Russian Federation Report," 9 January)

...AND SIBERIA. In Irkutsk Oblast: Number of Internet cafes: 20; Number of people using the Internet in cities such as Irkutsk, Angarsk, Bratsk, and Shelekhov: around 30,0000; Percentage of local firms with their own websites: 15 percent; In Krasnoyarsk Krai: Number of Internet cafes in the city of Krasnoyarsk: 2; Number of people regularly using the Internet in krai: around 1 million; Number of local Internet service providers: around 30. Percentage of local firms with their own websites: around 30 percent. In Tomsk Oblast: Number of Internet cafes in the city of Tomsk: 15; Number of people regularly using the Internet: 100,000; Percentage of that group who live in the city of Tomsk: 90 percent; Number of local Internet service providers: 10; Number of local firms with their own websites: 400; Rank of region in terms of most personal computers in Russia: 5th place; Percentage of families with their own computer: 10-15 percent. In Altai Krai: Number of Internet cafes and clubs in Barnaul: 10; Number of people regularly using the Internet: 50,000; Number of local Internet service providers: 3; Percentage of firms with their own websites: 5 percent. In Novosibirsk Oblast: Number of Internet cafes in city of Novosibirsk: 7; Number of local Internet service providers: 24; Number of local firms with their own websites: 35 percent; Rank of oblast in terms of largest number of computers connected to the Internet: 1. ("Kommersant-Daily," 14 December 2001 and "RFE/RL Russian Federation Report," 9 January)

INFORMATION SECURITY COMMISSION IN THE WORKS IN THE FAR EAST. Presidential envoy to the Far Eastern federal district Konstantin Pulikovskii has launched the creation of an interdepartmental commission for information security, RFE/RL's Vladivostok correspondent reported on 9 January. The commission's membership will be composed of the directors of the Far East departments of the Federal Security Service (FSB), the Federal Agency for Government Communication and Information (FAPSI), chairmen of state technical commissions, as well as representatives of the municipal administrations in the district. Pulikovskii's press secretary, Yevgenii Anushin, said that the commission will focus on the protection of databanks of commercial and state enterprises. It will not control the activities of journalists, he said. ("RFE/RL Russian Federation Report," 16 January)

YUGOSLAV FOREIGN MINISTER SLAMS HATE SPEECH... Goran Svilanovic told a press conference in Belgrade on 15 January "it is unacceptable that the language of hate is kept alive after having killed tens of thousands of this country's people in the last 10 years alone," Reuters reported. He noted that there are daily expressions of hate in the media and in the public toward non-Serbs. The minister called on top leaders to speak out against hate speech: "Their silence when these things are said is louder than all the incidents that have happened in the past year, such as expressions of hate toward Jews, Muslims, Albanians, and Croats. This silence is something that must stop." Observers note that it is very rare for any top Serbian official to suggest that national intolerance is a problem in that country. In related news, the Yugoslav ministry dealing with minority affairs called on the public Prosecutor's Office to file charges against politicians and media who make ethnic slurs, RFE/RL's South Slavic and Albanian Languages Service reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 16 January)

...AS ISRAEL PROTESTS ANTI-SEMITIC BROADCAST. Svilanovic said in Belgrade on 15 January that Israel has formally protested anti-Semitic remarks in a recent New Year's broadcast on Yu-Info television, which is subordinated to the government of President Vojislav Kostunica, RFE/RL's South Slavic and Albanian Languages Service reported. The broadcast included remarks by one Zarko Gavrilovic, a former Serbian Orthodox priest, who said Jews are "born defective because of incest." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 16 January)

CONSTITUTIONAL COURT SAYS DEFAMATION CLAUSES COULD ENDANGER FREE SPEECH. The Constitutional Court on 10 January suspended paragraphs in the Slovak Criminal Code related to defamation of the republic and public officials, saying they could threaten freedom of speech in the country and will be examined further, TASR-Slovakia reported. The paragraphs in question, 102 and 103, relate to speech concerning the country, its parliament and government, the Constitutional Court, and the Slovak president. The court also rejected a challenge to the constitutionality of a clause protecting public officials from attacks for executing their duties, the agency said. Court Chairman Jan Mazak said the ruling is not connected with any particular case, though deputy Tomas Galbavy and other lawmakers filed a challenge with the court after President Rudolf Schuster announced his intention to sue journalist Ales Kratky over a satirical article. The court ordered that Galbavy's case be explored further. A Justice Ministry official said the court's decision to suspend the clauses rendered the prosecution of Kratky impossible, TASR reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 11 January)

PARLIAMENT APPROVES CD PIRACY BILL ON FIRST READING. The Verkhovna Rada on 17 January voted by 238 to five, with four abstentions, to pass on first reading a bill on combating CD piracy, AP reported. The U.S. government has introduced trade sanctions (to take effect on 23 January) to pressure Ukraine to draft such legislation. The bill allows for prosecutors to enter alleged CD production premises with a warrant that is based on specific allegations. A rejected government version of the bill, which reflected the U.S. demands, would have allowed prosecutors to enter CD production facilities any time and examine documents and equipment, with or without a warrant. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 January)

NEW STUDY OF NGO I.T. CAPACITIES. "The Use of Information and Communication Technologies by Non-Governmental Organizations in Southeast Europe [Albania, Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Yugoslavia]: A Joint Study by the Southeast Europe Initiative of OneWorld International and the Information Program of the Open Society Institute" is available online at


By Catherine Cosman

Hans Keller, a well-known BBC Three music producer, set out his views on radio in "The Listener" in 1972. Although since that time the Internet has transformed our communication landscape, Keller's article remains thought-provoking. Intended as a starting point for a reassessment of the cultural role of radio, Keller asserts that the constant interaction with the public should be the medium's goal. Keller's seven-part leitmotif is how the radio can best achieve and maintain genuine public communication.

In what he calls "the ethics of availability," Keller asserts that radio cannot rest easy once it is satisfied that it is making available news and music. Rather, radio programs should be structured as much as possible in such a way that listeners will only turn to the radio when and if they are ready to really listen. In other words, using radio for repeated, easy or mechanical listening dulls or even kills the message. On the other hand, if listeners merely require easily accessible radio programming, that is what they will get. In Keller's "supply and demand" curve, it is up to the audience to demand challenging and stimulating radio, but it would be better still if radio programmers "preempted" the need for such listener requests in the first place.

When it comes to "quality," Keller admits that "quality programming" springs to mind. For him, however, it is the quality of listening, which is preeminent. And as for those who are "best-equipped" to come up with a vital view of radio? Keller says that it us society's most creative minds -- although he admits that they are probably too busy to listen to the radio very often. It is such people who could "help radio move in the right direction by adhering to certain principles: "the principle of preventing automatic listening, promoting selective listening, and causing functional surprises, forcible widenings of the mind, by successions of programs from entirely different areas of mental life."

Unless creative individuals become involved in shaping radio's future, Keller warns that radio may merely serve to feed a listening addiction when it serves as "a means" rather than "an end in itself." It is the responsibility of radio programmers, however, to avoid the Scylla and Charybdis of serving up information and information. Keller says that "radio's end" should be "its own end." In other words, radio should "make itself as superfluous as possible in any given social and individual circumstances."

If the basic demand that it is the quality of listening, which is paramount, is taken into account, then "audience research assumes a very different significance." Then, Keller claims, "the chasing of audiences, be they majority or minority groups, emerges at best as a simple-minded oversimplification of a mass medium's responsibility." Radio, just as the arts in general today, are "under a constant threat of regression from communication to mere stimulation." In fact, since broadcasting can be switched on "all the time" it runs an even higher risk of serving "hypnosis" rather than "activation." Therefore radio should "constantly fights itself, its own, easily automatic effect." Radio programs should make "everything available" but "nothing on tap." Radio programs should be "not highbrow but double-brow" and should be "as conscious of anti-culture or the alternative cultures as of culture." For the author, it is "the vital struggle between cultures within cultures (never as overt as it is today) that keeps life alive."

In conclusion, Keller calls for "a vision of a mass medium not addressing itself to the masses, but to individuals, including individuals that don't exist yet but will, once new communications are listened to with undivided attention and eventually understood."