29 June 2001, Volume
FREEDOM FORUM'S INTERNATIONAL JOURNALISTS-IN-RESIDENCE PROGRAM.
Applications are due 31 August for the Freedom Forum's International Journalists-in-Residence Program for 2002. The three- to four-month program focuses on journalism courses at a major university in a large U.S. city. Participants also visit local media outlets and participate in lectures and seminars. The program is open to journalists from Africa, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and Central and South America. The program includes a combination of journalism course work, hands-on training at a local media organization, participation in lecture and seminar programs, and other activities contributing to an understanding of U.S. media. All applicants must be working journalists in the early to middle stages of their careers and proficient in written and spoken English. Participants will be selected by a committee of media and regional experts, and representatives of The Freedom Forum and the host institutions. Preference will be given to applicants who have had little or no experience in the United States. The Freedom Forum provides a stipend for travel, tuition, housing and living expenses. The program will begin in January 2002. Send completed applications to The Freedom Forum, International Journalists-in-Residence Program, 1101 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209 USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Fax: (1-703) 528-3520. (IJNet, 25 June)
ARMENIAN INTERNET ACCESS THREATENED BY PLANNED INCREASE IN TELEPHONE CHARGES.
The chief manager of Arminco, one of Armenia's primary Internet providers, warned on 26 June that plans by the ArmenTel telecommunications monopoly to extend to Internet users its planned new per-minute tariffs could cut Internet use in Armenia by 90 percent, RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau reported. The Armenian government and the Greek-owned ArmenTel formed a joint commission last week to try to work out a new compromise pricing policy to replace ArmenTel's planned increases. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 27 June)CROATIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS RELUCTANT TO FACE TOUGH QUESTIONS?
Veteran journalist Mirjana Rakic resigned as moderator of Croatian Television's talk show "Forum" after Prime Minister Ivica Racan, Deputy Prime Minister Goran Granic, and several other top officials cancelled a planned appearance, AP reported from Zagreb on 20 June. They were slated to discuss the government's record after 500 days in office. The officials cancelled after Rakic changed the format to include a panel of critical journalists. "Vecernji list" wrote that the cancellation raises doubts about the government's commitment to freedom of the media. Rakic said later that she has never worked harder on a program and achieved so few results, "Jutarnji list" reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 21 June)
LUKASHENKA TO RETALIATE AGAINST 'UNFRIENDLY' RUSSIAN MEDIA.
Belarusian President Lukashenka on 21 June slammed Russian media, accusing them of biased coverage of the situation in Belarus. Speaking to reporters in Moscow at the end of a two-day visit, Lukashenka noted that some media are describing political events in Belarus "in an uncivilized and ugly way." He threatened to retaliate against "unfriendly" media outlets following the presidential elections in September. "I will tell you frankly. Even if there are many more provocations on the part of the Russian media, we will not take any action before the election. But after the election we will draw the necessary conclusions and decide who should work in Belarus, which television channels should work in Belarus," Lukashenka said. Earlier this month, four Russian television channels went off the air in Minsk for a day after ORT aired a program featuring four potential presidential candidates from the Belarusian opposition. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 25 June)RSF PROTESTS SENTENCING OF JOURNALIST.
In a letter to Minister of Justice Guenadi Vorontsov, Reporters sans Frontieres (RSF) protested the sentencing of Valery Schukin, journalist for the publications "Tovarisch" and "Narodnaja Volja", to three months' imprisonment. "The sentencing of a journalist to a prison term for 'vandalism' befits the Soviet era," said Robert Menard, the organization�s secretary-general. "We ask that you release Valery Schukin without delay," added Menard. Schukin was jailed on 12 June. On 15 March, the journalist, who is also a member of parliament, was sentenced to three months' imprisonment for "vandalism", in accordance with Article 339/1 of the Penal Code, for having tried to enter, without permission, a press conference held by Minister of the Interior M. Naumov in late 2000. The subject of the press conference was the disappearance of opposition figures in Belarus. (Reporters sans Frontieres, 22 June)LOWER HOUSE OVERRIDES PRESIDENTIAL VETO OF MEDIA LAW.
The Chamber of Deputies on 26 June overrode President Vaclav Havel's veto of a new media law passed by the chamber in April, CTK and AP reported. Under the law, licenses of private television broadcasters will be automatically extended for 12 years and those of radio broadcasters for eight years, provided that they have not violated regulations. Only one extension will be permitted per license-holder. Havel had argued that the law would hamper free competition in radio and television broadcasting, since it favors current broadcasters over new broadcasters. The law was passed with a larger majority (135 out of the 176 deputies present) than in April, when it was supported by 128 lawmakers. Presidential spokesman Ladislav Spacek hinted that Havel may appeal to the Constitutional Court. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 27 June)
A SEARCH IN THE LOCAL PAPER OFFICE IN OSH.
Six law enforcement officials, led by Major Janybek Kurbanov, searched the office of the "Jash Muun" paper in Osh City on 28 June. Chief editor of the paper Erkin Kojogeldin told an RFE/RL correspondent on 28 June that they looked for leaflets against President Askar Akaev but did not find anything. ("RFE/RL Kyrgyz News," 28 June)TRIAL AGAINST A JOURNALIST IN OSH POSTPONED AGAIN.
Judge of the Osh city court Midin JoldoshAliyev postponed on 27 June the beginning of a trial against deputy chief editor of the "Jangy Muun" newspaper Ernis Nurdinov for the fourth time. The first court session was planned for 4 June. Kubanych Joldoshev, director of the construction directorate of Osh Province, accused Nurdinov of insulting him in one of his recently published articles and demands 500,000 soms (about $10,000) in compensation. ("RFE/RL Kyrgyz News," 27 June)LOCAL JOURNALIST STILL IN DETENTION IN JALAL-ABAD.
Prosecutor of the southern Jalal-Abad Province Kubanychbek Bakiev told journalists on 27 June, that criminal investigation against journalist Samagan OrozAliyev would be completed soon. He was accused of taking a bribe of about $300 and arrested on 28 May. According to the prosecutor, four local officials filed lawsuits against the journalist, who worked for the State TV and Radio Corporation. ("RFE/RL Kyrgyz News," 27 June)JUSTICE MINISTRY ORDERS PUBLICATION OF NEW NEWSPAPERS POSTPONED.
Deputy Justice Minister Erkin Mamyrov has ordered the state publishing house Uchkun not to begin publishing any new newspapers registered within the past two months until the process of reregistering existing media outlets has been completed, RFE/RL's Bishkek bureau reported on 21 June. That process is due to end on 1 July. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 22 June)KYRGYZSTAN MULLS EXTENDING REREGISTRATION OF MEDIA OUTLETS.
The process of reregistering media outlets may be extended for a further two-three months, from 1 July to 1 September or 1 October, Deputy Justice Minister Erkinbek Mamyrov told RFE/RL's Bishkek bureau on 25 June. No new media outlets may be registered during that period. Mamyrov described as "a mistake" the ministry's registration since the reregistration campaign began on 1 April of 16 media outlets. That registration was subsequently revoked. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 26 June)SECOND EDITOR SUES JUSTICE MINISTRY.
Opposition People's Party of Kyrgyzstan Chairman Melis Eshimkanov told RFE/RL's Bishkek bureau on 27 June that he has brought a lawsuit against the Justice Ministry in connection with its decision to rescind the registration of 16 new media outlets registered since 1 April. Three of those are newspapers that Eshimkanov owns. A second editor, Aleksandr Kim, has already brought such a lawsuit against the ministry. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 28 June)GOVERNMENT TO OPEN DIRECT PHONE LINES FOR CITIZENS.
According to the governmental press service, direct phone lines by which any person may contact the government directly will be opened from 2 July. Prime Minister Kurmanbek Bakiev ordered the lines in order to find out when unnecessary examinations into the activity of private companies are made. ("RFE/RL Kyrgyz News," 28 June)
LEAFLETS SET OFF FEAR AMONG MACEDONIAN ALBANIANS.
A purported group calling itself Macedonian Paramilitary 2000 has distributed leaflets in the Kvantashki Market area of Skopje threatening vigilante action by 26 June in what the text called "the longest night," "The Guardian" reported on 25 June. The leaflets said that after the deadline, "all the [Albanian] shops will be burned and if someone tries to protest, they will be killed with no warning." The leaflets added that "for every police officer or soldier killed, 100 Shiptars [ed.: a pejorative term] will be killed." A spokesman for the NGO Human Rights Watch told the daily that "the increased activity of these paramilitary groups is potentially the most dangerous development in this conflict, because it threatens to draw large segments of the population into the fighting." "The Times" commented on 26 June that "the Balkan curse of ethnic cleansing finally came to Macedonia yesterday." The daily noted that Albanians had left the area and that local Macedonian merchants displayed the leaflet in their windows, as the text instructed them to do. Fear was the motive for both groups. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 26 June)
POLISH LAWMAKERS ACCUSE TELEVISION OF POLITICAL BIAS.
A group of 80 legislators from the Solidarity Electoral Action of the Right, Law and Justice, and Civic Platform electoral committees have accused Polish Television of meddling in the ongoing election campaign, Polish Radio reported on 20 June. The legislators demand in a written statement that the Polish Television Program and Supervisory Council explain its "shocking decision" to air a documentary accusing Justice Minister Lech Kaczynski of involvement in a financial scandal. PAP reported the same day that the board of the Association of Polish Journalists in Polish Television said the documentary testifies to the fact that public television is being used for "political manipulation." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 21 June)POLAND'S CATHOLIC RADIO OBTAINS 'SOCIAL BROADCASTER' STATUS.
The National Radio and Television Broadcasting Council has granted social broadcaster status to the Roman Catholic radio station Radio Maryja, PAP reported on 21 June. In accordance with a bill passed in January, social broadcasters are not allowed to air advertisements or receive payments for the dissemination of their programs. The advantage is that social broadcasters do not have to pay for their broadcasting licenses. Radio Maryja will save 1.8 million zlotys ($450,000) on the prolongation of its license for seven years as of 23 June. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 25 June)
PRESS FREEDOM THREATENED IN RUSSIA, IPI SAYS.
The Vienna-based International Press Institute said on 27 June that it continues to be concerned by the state of press freedom in Russia, dpa reported. Russia remains on the group's "watch list" because there have been few signs of improvement and many signs of worsening of the state of media freedom in that country, IPI officials said. Journalists have retreated into "self-censorship," they have been subjected to "massive political pressure," and financial interests rather than journalistic principles often dictate coverage, they added. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 28 June)RSF AND GLASNOST DEFENSE FUND LAUNCH MOSCOW BUREAU.
Reporters sans Frontieres (RSF) and the Glasnost Defense Fund are launching a joint bureau in Moscow in July. The organizations, known for protecting the rights of journalists and promoting freedom of the press, will furnish legal assistance to journalists, help journalists working in conflict areas, and provide for the families of journalists killed while on assignment. In an interview with Ekho Moskvy radio, Robert Menard, the secretary-general, said RSF decided to fight alongside their Russian colleagues and draw the attention of international organizations to their problems. He also said that RSF intended to appeal primarily to Russian journalists "because it is up to them to get mobilized and fight against the limitation of press freedom." Menard and Alexey Simonov, president of the Glasnost Defense Fund, announced formation of the joint bureau at a Moscow press conference. (IJNet, 25 June)DUMA FAILS TO PASS BILL RESTRICTING FOREIGN OWNERSHIP OF MEDIA OUTLETS.
The Duma on 21 June failed to pass on second reading a bill that would have limited foreign investments in the country's main television stations, Russian and Western agencies reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 22 June)RTR CLOSES REGIONAL BUREAUS IN RUSSIA.
RTR television has closed its bureaus in Ivanovo, Yaroslavl, Arkhangelsk, Nazran, Vladikavkaz, and Stavropol, claiming that "there are few new events interesting for television taking place in these cities," "Obshchaya gazeta," No. 26, reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 28 June)PUTIN SAYS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES REQUIRE NEW APPROACH...
In a message to the Moscow international information congress, President Vladimir Putin on 25 June said that the new technologies in the information sphere require new approaches and "particular responsibility on the part of all participants in the information space," Russian agencies reported. Meanwhile, First Deputy Prime Minister Valentina Matvienko told the meeting that the government will guarantee freedom of speech and the media in Russia, Interfax reported. Vladislav Shertsyuk, the first deputy secretary of the Russian Security Council, added that information security is a key element in Russian national security planning. Security in this sphere, he said, can be achieved "only when the security of the national information infrastructures of each country of the world and also the global information infrastructure as a whole is guaranteed," the news agency reported the same day. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 26 June)...AS YASTRZHEMBSKII TALKS ABOUT IMPROVING RUSSIA'S IMAGE ABROAD...
Presidential aide Sergei Yastrzhembskii told the information congress that Moscow is just as concerned about its image abroad as it is by reforms, Interfax reported on 25 June. He said that many foreign news outlets, "especially" those in the U.S., ignore "positive information about Russia" and thus allow negative stereotypes to continue to hold sway among their viewers, listeners, and readers. He called on the journalists present to be "objective and just" in their treatment of events in Russia. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 26 June)...AND GAZPROM IMPOSES ITS WILL AT EKHO MOSKVY.
Representatives of Gazprom have succeeded in blocking the re-election of Yurii Fedutinov to the directors' council of Ekho Moskvy, Interfax reported on 25 June. In an interview published in "Vremya novostei" on 25 June, the radio station's editor in chief, Aleksei Venediktov, said that he does not rule out the possibility that Gazprom plans to replace the management of the station with its own people. Venediktov told Interfax that Gazprom's earlier assurances that it did not plan to change the management of the station were empty, but Gazprom representatives said they made no such promises, the news service reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 26 June)KOKH, VYAKHIREV, AND REZNIK WITHDRAW FROM EKHO MOSKVY BOARD.
In a move they said was "an act of solidarity" with the journalists of Ekho Moskvy, Alfred Kokh, Rem Vyakhirev, and Aleksandr Reznik, all of whom have been associated with Gazprom or Gazprom-Media, announced their intention to withdraw from the directors council of the radio station, Russian agencies reported on 26 June. But Aleksei Venediktov, the editor in chief of the station, expressed his doubts that their proclaimed motive is in fact the real one, Interfax reported the same day. After all, Venediktov said, all three participated in voting against all candidates put forward by the journalists working at the station. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 27 June)PUTIN GREETS SOVINFORMBURO, NOVOSTI VETERANS.
President Putin on 24 June sent his greetings to the veterans of Sovinformburo, APN-Novosti, and the Russian Information Agency Novosti in connection with the 60th anniversary of the first, the 40th anniversary of the second, and the 10th anniversary of the third, Interfax reported on 24 June. Putin said that "the patriotic traditions" laid down by Sovinformburo during the difficult days of World War II are being continued in a worthy way by Novosti. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 26 June)MINISTER WANTS RUSSIA TO GO ONLINE.
Gleb Pavlovskii, the head of the Effective Policy Foundation and a close adviser to the Kremlin, said that 38,000 new Internet media have appeared in the Russian language in the last 18 months and most of them are "quite original" rather than being duplicates of print media, ITAR-TASS reported on 25 June. Meanwhile, Economic Development and Trade Minister German Gref said in an interview published the same day in "Vremya novostei" that Moscow wants to promote the computerization of the government and schools so that 100 million Russians will be online by 2010. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 26 June)PRESIDENTIAL ENVOY PLANS TO TELEVISE COURT PROCEEDINGS OF CORRUPT PUBLIC OFFICIALS.
On the same day, presidential envoy to the Urals federal district Petr Latyshev told another gathering of reporters in Moscow that over the last year the problem of creating a single legal field in his district has practically been resolved. He added that over the same time period his office has opened around 30 consultative organs, such as a consultative cooperation council for foreign investors and an analogous council for domestic investors, according to Interfax. With regard to his office's work combating official corruption, Latyshev declared that television stations in his region will start to broadcast the judicial proceedings against corrupt officials, the website polit.ru reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 28 June)RUSSIA'S ROMA GET FIRST NEWSPAPER.
The first issue of a Romany newspaper in Russia has been published in Samara, the unofficial capital of the country's Roma population, "Nezavisimaya gazeta" reported on 26 June. Called "Romani Duma" ("Council of the Gypsies"), the paper has a press run of 20,000 copies. At the time of the last Soviet census in 1989, the Roma population of the USSR was 261,956. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 27 June)BEREZOVSKY SAYS 'IZVESTIYA' FAILED TO CARRY HIS INTERVIEW.
In a letter to "Kommersant-Daily" published on 22 June, embattled media magnate Boris Berezovsky said that "Izvestiya" failed to carry the entire interview he gave to that paper and consequently he asked "Kommersant-Daily" to print it in full. That paper agreed and carried the interview the same day. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 22 June)BEREZOVSKY IN WORDS AND ON FILM.
American journalist Paul Klebnikov told "Versiya," No. 25, that the 10,000 copies of the Russian-language edition of his biography of Berezovsky sold out instantly. Klebnikov said he focused on Berezovsky because he believes the oligarch embodies his times. Meanwhile, filmmaker Petr Lungin told RIA-Novosti on the same day that he plans to do a film on Berezovsky, one that will allow viewers to look into the oligarch's "soul." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 27 June)MEDIA SAID A BUSINESS LIKE ANY OTHER.
Aleksandr Lyubimov, the president of the Media Union, told an international conference on "Information Challenges of the XXIst Century" that Russian mass media have become a business and that struggles over them are like struggles over any other business, Interfax reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 27 June)
BANJA KOVILJACA JOURNALIST RECEIVES THREATS.
Banja Koviljaca journalist Miroslav Mijatovic was threatened with murder after accusing Radio Podrinje advertising department director and Socialist Party of Serbia member Dragan Vucetic of corruption. On 14 June Vucetic telephoned Radio Om, where Mijatovic's articles are read, and threatened to kill him and the director of that radio station, Mijatovic told Radio B92. "Since we have an indicator that shows the telephone number of the caller, we discovered from which telephone we received the call. We told the police about the call, and they informed us later on that Mr. Vucetic was taken to the police for an informative interrogation," Mijatovic said. ("ANEM Media Update," 16-22 June)ORLIC: PRESS KIT ON PATIC MURDER ASSEMBLED.
Participants of the roundtable organized by the daily "Vecernje novosti" titled "Journalists - Victims of Truth" severely condemned the murderer of Milan Pantic, a Jagodina journalist, and demanded that the state bodies find those responsible as soon as possible. The roundtable participants also demanded that the cases of the murder of Slavko Curuvija and the death of Dada Vujasinovic be solved. Speaking about progress in the investigation into the Pantic murder, Federal Information Minister Slobodan Orlic said on 21 June in his statement for Radio Television of Serbia: "We have established a body consisting of the representatives of the Serbian Association of Journalists, and of the representatives of the republic and federal governments, as well as of the representatives of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. They informed me that in the course of their investigation of the case, the Ministry of Internal Affairs has made a press kit profiling the murderer of Milan Pantic. I think that due to journalists' demands, the Ministry of Internal Affairs will give the press kit out to media." Businessman Smail Sinanovic, owner of the Radio Television Center, and of the firm Magikomerc, was heard in the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Jagodina as a witness to the investigation into Pantic's murder, "with whom he had spoken on the phone several times before the tragic event." "I also told the police something that I cannot tell you, and I think that I have given my contribution to the investigation," Sinanovic said in his statement for Sanapres. He added that Pantic had asked him to give him the files with documents concerning the legal proceedings initiated by Sinanovic's charge against the Jagodina Brewery. ("ANEM Media Update," 16-22 June)SERBIAN GOVERNMENT REIMBURSES MEDIA'S INFORMATION ACT FINES.
The Serbian government reimbursed on 18 June part of the money that media had paid as fines under the now repealed Information Act, Radio B92 reported. During the press conference Serbian Finance Minister Bozidar Djelic handed over transfer orders to the leaders of 11 media organizations, with which they will receive the money the same day. Djelic said that a total of 11.4 million dinars had been reimbursed to these organizations: Dan graf, Blic pres, "Glas Javnosti," ABC grafika, "Vreme," Nin, Beta pres, "Vranjske novine," Info Nis, "Kikindske novine," and "Srpska rec." Djelic and Serbian Deputy Prime Minister Zarko Korac said the government decided to reimburse media after the Yugoslav Constitutional Court ruled that the regulations of the notorious Information Act had not been in compliance with the constitution. ("ANEM Media Update," 16-22 June)TADIC CALLS ON MEDIA TO PAY OLD DEBTS.
The drafts of the Telecommunications Act and of the Broadcasting Act will likely be enacted during the upcoming month, Federal Telecommunications Minister Boris Tadic said at a press conference on 20 June. Those acts will introduce liberalization, competition and regulatory bodies that will prevent uncontrolled political influence in these sectors. Regarding the draft of the Broadcasting Act, Tadic pointed out the importance of introducing the regulatory body for preventing corruption and political influence: "As a side effect of the relationships that had not been properly regulated in the broadcasting sector during the past several years, huge debts were accumulated because some of the frequencies were not being paid for," Tadic said. ("ANEM Media Update," 16-22 June)DJUKANOVIC BRINGS CRIMINAL CHARGES AGAINST NEWSPAPERS.
Montenegrin Prime Minister Milo Djukanovic confirmed for the weekly "Monitor" that he had brought criminal charges against the editors of two newspapers, the Zagreb-based "Nacional" and Podgorica-based daily "Dan." Djukanovic said he brought charges as a private citizen on the grounds of their articles in which his name had been mentioned in connection with criminal acts and cigarette smuggling. "I did it as a citizen, in order to avoid accusations that I am doing that while taking advantage of the aid of some other state bodies, such as the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the public prosecutor, and others," Djukanovic said. ("ANEM Media Update," 16-22 June)RTS WANTS TO NIX LIVE BROADCAST OF PARLIAMENT SESSIONS.
The Radio Television of Serbia board of directors sent a letter on 21 June to Serbian parliament President Dragan Marsicanin advising that the live broadcast of parliament sessions on RTS Channel 2 be brought to an end. "We have discussed it for a long time and we reached a position that the live broadcasts do not serve the people, but violate the public interests of our society," the RTS board members told Marsicanin. "A section of the parliamentary opposition has obviously based its political strategy not only on obstruction, but also on discrediting the very parliament and the parliamentary system," the letter read. "The RTS managing board feels that its obligation is to protect the public from the behavior of certain people in parliament," they concluded. ("ANEM Media Update," 16-22 June)
PRESIDENT WILL NOT DROP DEFAMATION CHARGES AGAINST JOURNALIST.
Rudolf Schuster does not intend to withdraw defamation charges against journalist Ales Kratky and his office denies having received a letter from the Vienna-based International Press Institute (IPI) criticizing the lawsuit, AP reported on 26 June, citing presidential aide Jan Bilek. Earlier this month, the presidential office filed charges against Kratky for comments he made in the daily "Novy Cas" after Schuster's State of the Nation speech in the parliament in May. In his comments, Kratky said he doubts Schuster has "the mental capacity to lead the country." In a letter to Schuster, the IPI called on him to withdraw the lawsuit, according to the institute. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 27 June)
PEACE INSTITUTE ANNOUNCES FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM.
The Peace Institute (Institute for Contemporary Social and Political Sciences) in Ljubljana, Slovenia has announced its fellowship program for media professionals in 2001-2002. The purpose of the fellowship program is to explore media development and media policy issues in Slovenia in relation to practices and standards in other countries. Particular emphasis is given to member countries of the European Union, EU accession countries, and Southeastern European countries within the Stability Pact. Media professionals with expertise in research of media development issues or in investigative journalism, with a good knowledge of English language, may apply for the fellowship. The fellowship program will span the period from September 2001 to March 2002. The deadline for applications is 1 July 2001. For more information, contact Peace Institute, Ljubljana, Metelkova 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Telephone +386 234 77 20/27. E-mail: email@example.com. (IJNet, 25 June)