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(Un)Civil Societies Report: September 19, 2001


19 September 2001, Volume 2, Number 37

NOTE TO READERS:
This is a special issue of (Un)Civil Societies that focuses on global reaction the 11 September terrorist attack in the United States.
INTERNATIONAL
RUSSIA AND NATO JOINTLY CONDEMN TERRORIST ATTACKS. The Permanent Russia-NATO Council on 13 September adopted a resolution introduced by Moscow condemning the terrorist attacks in the U.S. and saying that both partners in that council are determined that those responsible do not go unpunished, RIA-Novosti reported. But Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Yevgenii Gusarov told Interfax the same day that the resolution does not mean that Moscow will take part in any retaliatory actions. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

RUSSIAN INTELLIGENCE CALLS FOR ANTI-TERROR ALLIANCE... Sergei Lebedev, the director of Russia's Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR), said that the attacks on the U.S. highlight the global nature of terrorist threats, "Trud" reported on 12 September. He said that his agency is maintaining close ties with its American and European counterparts in order to counter the terrorist threat. Meanwhile, Yurii Drozdov, a veteran Soviet intelligence officer who earlier supervised the elite Vympel special forces group, said that the 11 September attack was carried out by individuals who know the weaknesses of the United States and who worked long and hard to perfect their operation. Because such an operation would have required much time, Drozdov added, the failure of U.S. intelligence services to detect it highlights their shortcomings. That could point to more problems ahead, he suggested. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

REGIONAL
DEFENSE MINISTER OPPOSED TO ALLOWING U.S. TO USE BASES IN CENTRAL ASIA TO ATTACK AFGHANISTAN. Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov on 14 September said that he is against the launching of an attack on Afghanistan from bases in Central Asian or other CIS countries, Radio Mayak reported. Nonetheless, Russian media, including "Izvestiya" on 15 September reported that there had been "an agreement" that the U.S. could use some airfields in Central Asia to launch an attack on Afghanistan. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

PUTIN CONSULTS WITH CENTRAL ASIAN LEADERS ON TERRORISM... From Sochi, where he is taking a working vacation, Russian President Vladimir Putin on 17 September telephoned the leaders of the five Central Asian countries that are members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) to discuss working together to combat terrorism, Russian and Western agencies reported. Meanwhile, Russian Security Council Secretary Vladimir Rushailo the same day departed for Central Asia to continue these discussions, ITAR-TASS reported. But also on 17 September, Major General Mikhail Lobarev, the chief of staff for military coordination of the Collective Rapid Reaction Force, told Interfax that there are as yet no plans for using this force, which is composed of soldiers from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Tajikistan, against the terrorist threat. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

BALKAN GOVERNMENTS EXPRESS SOLIDARITY ON U.S. TRAGEDY. Throughout the Balkans, messages of sympathy and support have come from all religious communities. The most visible signs of support for America came not only from Croatia, Bosnia, and Montenegro -- where official days of mourning were proclaimed -- but above all from Kosova, where thousands turned out across the province in public demonstrations of sympathy and offered to donate blood. In Macedonia, both the Macedonian and Albanian communities expressed solidarity through their leaders. Yugoslav President Vojislav Kostunica made his horror and revulsion known, as did many other Serbian politicians. The Yugoslav government offered to help catch the terrorists. (RFE/RL Balkans Report, 18 September)

KAZAKHSTAN, TURKMENISTAN READY TO SUPPORT U.S. REPRISALS. Speaking at the U.S. Embassy in Almaty on 15 September, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev said his country "is ready to support the measures the U.S. will carry out against terrorists. Kazakhstan can be relied on," RFE/RL's Kazakh Service reported. In Washington the previous day, Nazarbaev's security adviser, Altynbek Sarsenbaev, told Reuters that the only way to neutralize Saudi terrorist Osama bin Laden is through a coordinated effort spearheaded by the U.S. to end the civil war in Afghanistan. Also on 14 September, Turkmenistan's president, Saparmurat Niyazov, assured U.S. charge d'affaires Eric Schultz of his support for international countermeasures against terrorism, RFE/RL's Turkmen Service reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

U.S. TURNS DOWN RUSSIAN OFFER OF ASSISTANCE. Joe Albo, the director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, on 13 September sent a telegram to Russian Emergency Situations Minister Sergei Shoigu thanking Moscow for its offer of assistance in the wake of the terrorist attacks, but saying that the U.S. does not need such assistance, Interfax reported. Meanwhile, other Russian officials, including the FSB, continued to offer help, "Izvestiya" reported the same day. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

U.S.-RUSSIA
RUSSIA AGREES NOT TO FIRE ROCKETS DURING EXERCISE. In response to a U.S. request following the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington on 11 September, the Russian air force agreed not to fire any missiles during its current military exercise, Interfax-AFI reported. That action came after the Russian military denied a report in "The Washington Times" that a Russian air force plane had threatened an American one, the news agency said. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 12 September)

PUTIN DIRECTS GOVERNMENT TO IMPROVE SECURITY, ASSIST U.S. President Putin on 12 September directed his government to ensure that all security arrangements in Russia are working and to take steps to fill any gaps, RIA-Novosti reported. He specifically asked Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov to ensure that Russian crisis-planning is in order and to offer assistance to the United States following the terrorist attacks there. Meanwhile, Russian officials across the country stepped up security at transportation and other facilities and limited air traffic. Russian officials also called off some military flights lest they lead to more tension. To highlight Russian concern, Putin issued a decree calling for a minute of silence in Russia on 13 September to commemorate "the victims of the tragedy in the United States." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

FOREIGN MINISTER SAYS U.S. SHOULD BE MEASURED IN ITS RESPONSE TO ATTACKS. Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov said on 14 September that the United States should use political and legal measures against the terrorists before undertaking military actions, ITAR-TASS reported. He said that military force is the ultimate measure and cannot by itself solve problems like terrorism that require more patient treatment. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

PUTIN SPEAKS WITH BUSH ABOUT COOPERATION AFTER TERRORIST ATTACKS. President Putin on 12 September telephoned U.S. President George W. Bush to discuss expanding cooperation against terrorism, Russian and Western agencies reported. Meanwhile, U.S. Ambassador to Russia Alexander Vershbow said that the attacks could lead to greater cooperation between Russia and the United states "in the fight against international terrorism." Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov said that Russia believes there should be a G-8 summit on terrorism and a global system to counter terrorism. Vershbow said the U.S. will consider those proposals. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

GEORGIA, UZBEKISTAN ASSESS WHAT ASSISTANCE THEY COULD OFFER U.S. Georgia would be prepared to accede to a request from the U.S. to make its military bases available for use in the event of a retaliatory U.S. strike in the wake of 11 September's attacks, Caucasus Press quoted Georgian Deputy Defense Minister Gela Bezhuashvili as saying on 17 September. He similarly told Interfax that Tbilisi would offer the U.S. "maximum assistance," but added that neither Washington nor NATO has yet addressed any such request to the Georgian leadership. In Tashkent, Foreign Ministry spokesman Bakhodyr Umarov told AP that if asked, Uzbekistan would consider allowing the U.S. the use of its military bases to launch strikes against Afghanistan. Last year, President Islam Karimov ruled out allowing Moscow to launch strikes against the Taliban from Uzbek territory. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

MOSCOW READY TO COOPERATE WITH U.S. ON COUNTERING TERRORISM. Following talks between Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Georgii Mamedov and U.S. Undersecretary of State John Bolton in Moscow on 17 September, the Russian Foreign Ministry issued a statement saying that the two countries will work together "to rebuff the looming threat of international terrorism," ITAR-TASS reported. Mamedov said that the talks themselves are a reflection of Moscow's willingness to help the United States during this difficult time. In a speech the same day, Foreign Minister Ivanov underscored Moscow's belief that only international cooperation can lead to the elimination of terrorism. Unilateral actions, he said, will not do so. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

U.S.-RUSSIAN AFGHANISTAN GROUP STEPS UP ITS ACTIVITIES. In the wake of the terrorist attacks on the United States, the U.S.-Russian working group on Afghanistan will increase the level of activity, NTV reported on 14 September. That group brings together intelligence and defense officials from the two countries under the co-chairmanship of former Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) chief Vyacheslav Trubnikov and U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage. It will help to coordinate the response to the recent terrorist attacks, the channel suggested. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

MOSCOW PUTS FORCES IN TAJIKISTAN ON HIGH ALERT. Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov on 16 September told reporters that Moscow has put the 201st Russian motorized rifle division in Tajikistan "on red alert" in response to what he called "the developing situation in the region," ITAR-TASS reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

MOSCOW TELLS U.S. RUSSIAN NUCLEAR, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS SECURE. In response to statements by visiting U.S. Undersecretary of State Bolton concerning the security of nuclear, chemical, and biological materials, Russian officials said on 17 September that Russia has these materials under complete control so that they cannot fall into the hands of terrorists, Russian and Western agencies reported. Russian officials acknowledged that their nuclear plants could not withstand a terrorist attack like those in New York and Washington, but they said that they do not believe that terrorists could assemble a nuclear device. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

FSB CRITICIZES U.S. FOR INTELLIGENCE FAILURE... Aleksandr Zdanovich, the head of the Assistance Programs Directorate of the Federal Security Service (FSB), said in an interview published in "Parlamentskaya gazeta" on 13 September that the terrorist operation against the United States was "thoroughly planned and prepared" over a period of at least several months. He said that the U.S. intelligence community had no inkling that any operation of this magnitude could be launched against the United States. "Not that the American intelligence community is weak or incompetent," Zdanovich said. "But unfortunately, the Americans have placed too much emphasis on ELINT [electronic intelligence]. The latest developments show that they have not bothered to infiltrate terrorist organizations. That is why the CIA had no warning. There is an old axiom, you know: truly professional secret services prevent crimes, and all the others investigate them after the fact." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

...AND SAYS IT THINKS IT KNOWS WHO ATTACKED U.S.... A spokesman for the Federal Security Service (FSB) said on 12 September that his service strongly suspects that the Jamiya Al-Islamiya group based in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia was behind the attacks on the U.S., ITAR-TASS reported. He added that this organization has both the financial resources and knowledge to implement such a terrorist action. "Izvestiya" reported the same day that an FSB official has handed over to the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency its information on that group. Meanwhile, the FSB released information about its high success rate in identifying terrorist groups and preventing terrorist actions, Interfax reported the same day. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

SVR DENIES IT GAVE CIA INFORMATION ON TERRORISTS. Tatyana Samolis, the press secretary of the director of Russia's Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR) denied in 13 September media reports that her agency gave the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency information about those who carried out the terrorist attacks on the U.S., polit.ru reported. She said that there has not been a meeting between officials of the two intelligence agencies and hence no information has been passed. The same day, Defense Minister Ivanov told Interfax that he has no reliable information on who was behind the terrorist attacks. "Vremya novostei" reported on 13 September that sources in the Defense Ministry have already selected targets for the U.S. to strike. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

FORMER FSB DIRECTOR SAYS U.S. RETALIATION FOR ATTACKS COULD BE BAD FOR RUSSIA. Former FSB Director Nikolai Kovalev, now a Duma deputy, said on 13 September that an American retaliatory strike against Afghanistan would lead to refugee flows northward that could destabilize the countries on Russia's southern border, Ekho Moskvy radio reported. Kovalev also said he is surprised by "the complete lack of security precautions" in the U.S. that had made the attacks so easy for the terrorists. He noted that it is very easy to bring explosives on board planes with the help of workers from duty-free shops. Meanwhile, former Russian Security Council secretary and Duma deputy Andrei Kokoshin said on Radio Mayak on 12 September that the American reaction might be both emotional and unpredictable. To avoid such problems in the future should Russia be attacked, Kokoshin said, the government should create a coordinator for counterterrorism at the level of "at least a deputy prime minister." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

PAPER SUGGESTS ATTACKS UNDERCUT U.S. ARGUMENTS FOR MISSILE DEFENSE. An article in "Novaya gazeta" on 13 September suggested that the terrorist attacks on the United States completely undermined President George W. Bush's arguments in favor of a missile defense system. Such a system could not have done anything to stop such attacks, which in any case are cheaper and easier to conduct that firing a missile that a missile defense system might defend against. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

BELARUS
LUKASHENKA REPORTEDLY CANCELS CONDOLENCE VISIT TO U.S. EMBASSY. President Alyaksandr Lukashenka on 13 September canceled a visit to the U.S. Embassy in Minsk in which he was to offer his condolences in connection with the terrorist attacks on the U.S., Belapan reported on 13 September. Quoting an anonymous source from the embassy, the agency said Lukashenka's protocol officials informed the embassy at short notice that the Belarusian president would be accompanied by a television crew and photographers during his visit. The embassy reportedly responded that no filming is allowed on the embassy's premises, and Lukashenka's motorcade turned around not far from the embassy and withdrew. Lukashenka subsequently sent Foreign Minister Mikhail Khvastou to offer condolences. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

BOSNIA
'ATTACKS ON INNOCENTS' SLAMMED. Bosnian federal Defense Minister Mijo Anic said in a telegram to his U.S. counterpart Donald Rumsfeld that he is "shocked and deeply moved...over the cowardly series of terrorist attacks on innocent American citizens and the U.S. government," Hina reported from Sarajevo on 11 September. Anic called on "the entire world" to pool efforts "against this evil." Federal President Karlo Filipovic and Sarajevo Mayor Muhidin Hamamdzic each sent a telegram of sympathy and solidarity to the U.S. embassy, Deutsche Welle's Bosnian Service reported on 12 September. In Banja Luka, Republika Srpska President Mirko Sarovic and Vice President Dragan Cavic sent U.S. President George W. Bush a telegram of condolence. Prime Minister Mladen Ivanic sent the U.S. embassy and Secretary of State Colin Powell a telegram in which he "strongly condemned" the terrorist attacks in his own name and that of the government. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 12 September)

BULGARIA
FOREIGN MINISTER CALLS FOR COOPERATION AMONG WESTERN DEMOCRACIES. Solomon Pasi said in Sofia on 12 September that the terrorist attacks in the U.S. inflicted "a huge wound on democracy," BTA reported. Pasi, upon returning from a visit to Brussels, said that the incidents in the U.S. are another reason for "democracies to get closer." He added that the attacks have shaken the world's "vision of peace and stability." In Brussels, Pasi took part in an informal meeting of foreign ministers from EU member states and applicant countries. He said he received positive signs from several of his counterparts about Bulgaria being invited to join NATO during its next expansion, expected to be announced next year at the 2002 NATO summit in Prague. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

CROATIA
PRESIDENT SLAMS 'ATTACK ON CIVILIZATION.' Stipe Mesic said in Zagreb on 11 September that the attacks were not one of "ordinary terrorism" but a "declaration of war against the United States and all civilization," RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. Cardinal Josip Bozanic sent a message of sympathy and support to the Roman Catholic Church in the U.S., Hina reported. Croatian dailies on 12 September discussed the world's "helplessness against global terrorism," as "Slobodna Dalmacija" put it. "Vecernji list" noted that people everywhere in Zagreb closely followed the news from the U.S. "Novi List" quoted legal expert Nikola Viskovic as saying that "globalization has led to the globalization of terrorism." Military affairs expert Zarko Puhovski wrote that the U.S. will most likely "respond with terror" of its own. Elsewhere, Croatian authorities tightened security at borders and airports, canceling all flights to Tel Aviv, dpa reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 12 September)

CZECH REPUBLIC
REPORTS OF TRADE, BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS LINKS TO BIN LADEN. The Czech Health Ministry on 17 September launched an investigation into weekend reports that deadly biological agents, including those that cause anthrax and botulism, were sold by Czech facilities to entities associated with international terrorist Osama bin Laden, CTK reported. Local media unearthed allegations from 1994 that vials containing the deadly diseases were supplied to an Albanian offshoot of bin Laden's organization. Czech Defense Minister Jaroslav Tvrdik also listed tractors from Brno-based Zetor among the goods being traded by firms with connections to bin Laden, stressing that global efforts must be made to curb terrorists' access to financial resources, CTK reported. A spokeswoman from the struggling tractor producer said the company knew of no such contacts, but acknowledged that it often knows little about its trading partners. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

HUNGARY
READY TO ASSIST U.S. IN FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISTS. Hungary is ready to offer assistance to the U.S. government in accordance with the provisions laid down in Article Five of the North Atlantic Treaty, Hungarian Foreign Minister Janos Martonyi informed U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell on 14 September. Martonyi told reporters that assistance could be of a diplomatic, political, informational, economic, or military nature. "The attacks affected humankind, so Hungary must be firmly at one with those attacked," Martonyi added. Government spokesman Gabor Borokai said the U.S. had not yet approached the Hungarian cabinet regarding any assistance. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

KOSOVA
THOUSANDS DEMONSTRATE FOR U.S. Several thousand Kosovars demonstrated in Prishtina and other cities and towns on 12 September in sympathy with the U.S. and against the terrorist attacks, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. Meanwhile in Sarajevo, a conference on relations between Christians and Muslims in Europe opened, and several speakers referred to the tragic developments in the U.S., "Avaz" reported. The Orthodox archbishop of Albania -- who is Greek -- led a prayer for the victims. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

KYRGYZSTAN
SPILLOVER FROM RETALIATORY STRIKES? Two Kyrgyz officials expressed concern on 17 September that retaliatory U.S. strikes against the Taliban could destabilize the situation in Central Asia by triggering a new outflow of refugees. AP quoted Kyrgyz Defense Ministry spokesman Colonel Mirbek Koilubaev as saying that Uzbekistan's readiness to make its military facilities available to the U.S. "may bring the conflict zone closer to Central Asia." Major General Ismail Isakov, the chairman of the Kyrgyz parliament's commission on state security, was quoted by Interfax as warning that Washington should refrain from any attacks on Afghanistan until it has hard evidence that the organizers of the 11 September terrorist attacks are in that country. He said that Washington should also consult with Central Asian governments prior to mounting any retaliatory action, and should exclude the possibility that civilians might be harmed in such strikes. He noted that U.S. attacks on Afghanistan would leave fighters from the banned Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan no choice but to flee to one of the Central Asian states. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

MACEDONIA
ALBANIAN GUERRILLA LEADER SENDS CONDOLENCES TO U.S. Ali Ahmeti, the political leader of the ethnic Albanian guerrillas of the National Liberation Army (UCK), sent a telegram to President George W. Bush and the American people to extend his condolences, Makfax reported on 13 September. He said: "With deep pain and much concern we [share] the hard tragedy caused by the enemies of the American people and state. This blow also hit the entire Albanian people in Macedonia.... We condemn the acts of terrorism and deeply sympathize with you." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

POLAND
PRESIDENT CONDEMNS ATTACKS ON U.S. AS 'CRIME OF GENOCIDE.' Speaking on Radio Zet on 12 September, Aleksander Kwasniewski used the expression "crime of genocide" to describe the carnage and devastation caused by the 11 September terrorist attacks on the U.S., dpa reported. "I believe that Americans will not react blindly...to appease public opinion, but that the reaction will be directed against the centers of world terrorism," Kwasniewski added. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 12 September)

ACADEMIC SAYS ATTACKS ON U.S. ARE CONSEQUENCE OF GLOBALIZATION. Speaking to a conference "Fears and Hopes of Globalization" in Opole on 13 September, Professor Adam Chmielewski from Warsaw University said the 11 September terrorist attacks on the U.S. came as a consequence of that country's global policy, Polish Radio reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

PARTIES CURB ELECTION CAMPAIGN OVER ATTACKS ON U.S. The Freedom Union has announced that as a result of the 11 September terrorist attacks on the United States, it has changed the formula of its election campaign, PAP reported on 12 September. The party said it will not organize mass rallies or jubilant campaign festivities in the run-up to the 23 September general elections. The Civic Platform has also decided to restrain its campaign, giving up rallies and suspending media promotion. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

ROMANIA
SUPREME DEFENSE COUNCIL TAKES MEASURES AFTER ATTACKS ON U.S. An extraordinary meeting of the Romanian Supreme Defense Council (CSAT) on 11 September decided to take "special measures" to protect important institutions, foreign embassies, and international institution buildings, a CSAT press release stated. The CSAT decided to set up a crisis committee for the government, while the Defense and Foreign Affairs ministries set up their own similar committees. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

RUSSIA
CHECHNYA, AFGHANISTAN, U.S. TERRORIST ACTS. The Russian Foreign Ministry on 17 September suggested in a statement that the killing of anti-Taliban Afghan leader Ahmad Shah Massoud, the recent terrorist attacks in the U.S., and the actions of the Chechen militants were "links in one chain," Interfax reported. In support of that claim, Russian officials provided to the U.S. what they said were computer disks found in Chechnya that contained instructions on how to fly a Boeing 737 jet. Meanwhile, Federal Security Service (FSB) officials said that Chechen militant commander Khattab is responsible for terrorist acts not only in Chechnya but in Tajikistan as well, Interfax reported. Colonel General Valerii Baranov, the commander of federal troops in Chechnya, the same day also suggested direct ties. He said "Arabs are there [in the U.S.] and Arab mercenaries are here [in Chechnya]," ITAR-TASS reported. Russian Interior Minister Boris Gryzlov on 17 September said that "Russia will give the United States information about terrorists' bases, their camps, and about persons identified as terrorists," Reuters reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

'IZVESTIYA' CRITICIZES FOREIGN MINISTRY FOR ITS REACTION TO TERRORIST INCIDENTS. An article in "Izvestiya" on 17 September sharply criticizes the Russian Foreign Ministry for its reaction to the terrorist attacks in the United States on 11 September. Instead of showing compassion, the paper said, Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov and his deputies acted as if nothing had changed in the world and stood aloof from the situation. That approach, "Izvestiya" added, was out of step with President Putin, who compared the actions of the terrorists to those of the Nazis. If the Foreign Ministry expects to achieve more understanding from the West, the paper concluded, it will have to show more sympathy to the situation the West finds itself in. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

PUTIN SAYS TERRORISTS' CRUELTY RANKS WITH THAT OF NAZIS... Speaking in Yerevan on 15 September, President Putin said that "terrorism has evolved in a most terrible way in front of our eyes. Now it is a truly global threat in the new century. Without any exaggeration, I think that there is every reason to compare what has now happened in its magnitude and cruelty with what the Nazis did," ORT television reported. Putin also said that "we talked a lot about the threat of terrorism, but apparently we didn't find the words that would have persuaded the world community to create an effective defense against international terrorism." He suggested that "the main lesson that should be drawn from this tragedy is the need to strengthen our own and international security." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

...SAYS U.S. FAILED TO UNDERSTAND CHANGED NATURE OF THREAT. President Putin said in Yerevan on 15 September that the United States has been unwilling to "recognize" that the world has changed and it is for that reason, rather than any weakness in its intelligence community, that Washington failed to anticipate the attacks, RIA-Novosti said on 15 September. He noted that the American intelligence community does not deserve the criticism it has received because "it simply was not designed for such challenges." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

PATRUSHEV SAYS FSB IS TRACKING OSAMA BIN LADEN. Nikolai Patrushev, the director of the Federal Security Service (FSB), said on 15 September that his agency has "operational data" on the whereabouts of terrorist leader Osama bin Laden and will share that data with the United States, RTR television reported on 15 September. "We knew where he was. We made an effort to update that information and we kept informing interested intelligence services," Patrushev said. But bin Laden has now "changed his whereabouts." Nonetheless, he continued, "we will find out where he is and inform our colleagues." Patrushev added that the "neutralization" of bin Laden would help stabilize the situation in Central Asia and the North Caucasus. He added that once everyone understands that there can be no double standards in the fight against terrorism, the FSB is "ready to physically eliminate [Chechen militant commanders] Shamil Basaev and Khattab." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

POSSIBLE FALLOUT FROM THE ATTACKS? Andrei Piontkovskii, a Moscow political analyst, told AFP on 12 September that President Putin will be seeking "political gains" from the attack and will insist that Washington "stop criticizing Russian actions in Chechnya" in exchange for Moscow's support now. Sergei Karaganov, the head of the Council for Foreign and Defense Policy, suggested that one or another state must have helped the terrorists since it would have been "impossible" to carry out such an attack otherwise, Interfax reported. Gleb Pavlovskii, the head of the Fund for Effective Policy and a Kremlin adviser, said that the attacks show that the old model of international relations based on alliances and power is no longer relevant, and that the leaders of the international community must cooperate to fight terrorism, the Russian news agency reported. Former FSB Director Nikolai Kovalev suggested to Interfax the same day that the terrorist acts against the U.S. reflect an intelligence failure not only there but in other countries as well. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

ANALYST SAYS MOSCOW WOULD BENEFIT FROM NEUTRALITY ON U.S. STRIKES AGAINST TERRORISTS. Kiril Tremasov, a stock exchange analyst at the Moscow Business World Bank, argues that "Russia will profit a great deal politically" if it neither supports nor opposes any future U.S. and NATO military actions against terrorists, utro.ru reported on 17 September. Moscow should continue its anti-terrorist rhetoric, Tremasov said, but it must avoid any commitments to take part in any actions by an international coalition. Tremasov, who is a close associate of Globalization Institute Director Mikhail Delyagin, said that the present situation in the world may allow Russia to quickly regain superpower status, especially if American actions exacerbate the existing split between northern and southern countries. An article in "Nezavisimaya gazeta" seconded this argument, adding that those countries that join with the U.S. in a campaign against terrorism risk being attacked themselves. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

EURASIAN LEADER SAYS U.S. FACES DILEMMA IN RESPONDING TO TERRORIST ATTACKS. Aleksandr Dugin, the controversial leader of the Eurasia movement, said that the United States now faces a genuine dilemma in deciding how to respond to the terrorist attacks against its people, smi.ru reported on 14 September. If it does not take decisive action, the U.S. will lose its position as the world superpower and the leader of the globalization process. But if it acts too strongly, it may alienate many of its allies and intensify the opposition of its foes. Dugin's arguments were echoed by an article in "Nezavisimaya gazeta," which suggested that the West will find it "psychologically more difficult" to fight Islamic fundamentalism than it found combating communism during the Cold War. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

RUSSIAN SCHOLAR REJECTS 'CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS' SCENARIO. Vladimir Isaev, the deputy director of Moscow's Institute of Oriental Studies, told Interfax on 17 September that he does not believe that the recent terrorist attacks in the United States either reflect or will produce a clash of the civilizations of East and West. Indeed, he said, such "a clash of civilizations" under existing conditions is "unthinkable." He argued that the attacks on the U.S. "evidently have not religious but rather social roots" that involve the terrible poverty and illiteracy common in the Third World, above all in the Muslim regions. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

U.S. SEEN CHANGING ITS UNDERSTANDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY... According to an article in "Nezavisimaya gazeta" on 15 September, the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington will force the U.S. government to change its conception of national security because the terrorist attacks were directed not so much at particular targets but at the American state as such. The U.S. will be forced to recognize, the paper said, that its security depends on the security of others, that terrorism can inflict losses equal to those in a conventional war, and that only a global response can deal adequately with such a global threat. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

...AND MOSCOW SEEN FACING A DIFFICULT CHOICE. In an article published in "Nezavisimaya gazeta" on 14 September, Andrei Fedorov, the director of political programs at the Council of Foreign and Defense Policy, said that Russia faces "a difficult choice" in the wake of the terrorist attacks. "If it joins the struggle against terrorism on a global scale, it will have to support the West...and hence disrupt many of its traditional ties with Arab countries; or keep aloof from the problem, which means that it will not quarrel with Arab countries but inevitably come into conflict with the West," Fedorov said. Some Russians have already taken sides. An article in "Vremya MN" on 14 September, for example, suggested that Moscow now has a chance to ally itself with the West and become integrated with it. But another article in "Vremya novostei" the same day suggested that any alliance with the West would quickly "die with bin Laden," after which Moscow and the West would quickly go their separate ways once again. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

MOSCOW WANTS TO KEEP CHEMICAL WEAPONS FROM FALLING INTO TERRORIST HANDS. Sergei Kirienko, the presidential envoy to the Volga federal district and the head of the state commission overseeing chemical disarmament, said on 12 September that Moscow is prepared to discuss the acceleration of the destruction of chemical and other weapons of mass destruction in order to keep them out of the hands of terrorists, RTR television reported. Kirienko noted that chemical and biological weapons are the most dangerous as far as international terrorism is concerned. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

DEFENSE MINISTER SAYS RUSSIA HAS NO PLANS TO DELIVER ANY MILITARY STRIKES. Speaking on his arrival in Yerevan on 13 September, Russian Defense Minster Sergei Ivanov said that Moscow is not planning to deliver any military strikes in response to the terrorist attacks in the U.S., ITAR-TASS reported. He used the occasion to express the hope that the world will now understand what Russia has been up against in Chechnya. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

RUSSIA SEEN AT RISK OF TERRORIST ATTACKS. "Komsomolskaya pravda" on 13 September featured an article suggesting that "just about anyone could dive-bomb the Kremlin," especially because, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia lacks radar coverage over a large part of its long borders. If such an attack took place, the paper said, "no one could prevent it." The same day, "Moskovskii komsomolets" carried an interview with an unnamed FSB officer who said that terrorists seeking to attack Russia are more likely to poison water supplies than to attempt to repeat what other terrorists did in the U.S. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

...BUT AIR FORCE COMMANDER ASSURES RUSSIANS IT COULD NOT HAPPEN THERE. General Anatolii Kornukov, the commander in chief of the Russian air force, said on 12 September that any terrorist act like those that hit New York and Washington could not take place in Russia, Interfax reported. He said that "if I found out that a passenger plane had been seized by terrorists and was heading toward the Kremlin, I would give the order for its destruction, however sad that would be. At the price of the lives of the hostages, we would save the lives of many hundreds and thousands of others," Kornukov concluded. But "Nezavisimaya gazeta" on 13 September quoted Kornukov as acknowledging that if an aircraft with terrorists took off from the environs of Moscow and set course for the Kremlin, "frankly, we would not have time" to shoot it down. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

DUMA REASSEMBLES, FOCUSES ON TERRORISM. The Duma reassembled on 17 September after its summer recess and a week during which deputies worked in their constituencies, Russian agencies reported. The deputies proposed a variety of draft laws and appeals to deal with the new upsurge in terrorism, and debated whether Russia should participate in any U.S. retaliation, with most speakers opposing such participation, Interfax reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

POLITICIANS REACT TO THE ATTACKS. The Duma Council decided on 12 September not to convene a special session of the parliament but it did adopt a call for a UN resolution condemning terrorism and approved a statement expressing sympathy to the U.S., Russian agencies reported. Duma deputy speaker and Liberal Democratic Party of Russia leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky said that he expects the Israelis to provide the U.S. with the precise addresses of terrorist camps and for the U.S. to strike possibly with tactical nuclear weapons "from Pakistan to Algeria," Interfax reported. But he added that "for the next 40 years, no one will be able to defeat terrorism." Duma International Affairs Committee Chairman Dmitrii Rogozin said that the U.S. and Russia must work together to counter the terrorist threat and to develop a new international system, RTR reported the same day. Communist leader Gennadii Zyuganov said that the "bestial attack" highlighted America's weakness, but he warned against fanning prejudices against any nation or religion, Interfax reported. That view was echoed by Bashkir President Murtaza Rakhimov, who noted that "terror does not have a nationality," the news service said. Meanwhile, Yabloko leader Grigorii Yavlinsky called for avoiding "acts of revenge" that will only spread the flames of conflict, but at the same time he urged the international community to come down hard on those who inflict terror on others, Russian agencies reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

REGIONAL LEADERS EXPRESS HORROR, ORDER INCREASED VIGILANCE FOLLOWING ATTACK ON U.S. The reaction of regional leaders to the terrorists acts in the U.S. on 11 September was a mixture of horror and concern. Krasnoyarsk Krai Governor Aleksandr Lebed and Bashkortostan President Murtaza Rakhimov both suggested that the U.S. should reexamine its security systems. Rakhimov noted that the events demonstrate the complete failure of the highly praised American security system. Kemerovo Governor Aman Tuleev suggested that Russia should call a session of the State Council to discuss measures aimed at preventing terrorist acts on Russian territory, Interfax reported. Tuleev also called the incident a "barbarous act of terrorism" that threatens "the entire civilized world." Meanwhile, the Siberian Military District in connection with the incidents increased security measures on 12 September, Interfax-Eurasia reported. In Chita Oblast, the Antiterrorist Commission conducted a meeting at which they discussed measures to prevent terrorism in the region. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

SIBERIAN LEADER WARNS U.S. AGAINST AFGHANISTAN QUAGMIRE. In an interview with Interfax on 17 September, Khakasia Republic President Aleksei Lebed declared that in a military engagement in Afghanistan, the U.S. would repeat the mistake of the USSR. Lebed, who served in Afghanistan as a Soviet soldier, said that when Soviet troops entered Afghanistan, "It appeared to us then that we were freeing Afghan people and bringing them progressive ideas, but as a result we started to fight not against the mujaheddin but against the entire people." Lebed stressed that he understands the desire of the U.S. president to punish the terrorists, but air strikes against population centers would likely wind up hurting only the peaceful population, while the "Taliban and [Osama] bin Laden sat out in the mountains." Lebed considers a land operation equally futile, predicting that within two-three months the U.S. Army would sustain "major losses." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

INGUSHETIA'S PRESIDENT DOUBTS U.S. RAIDS ON AFGHANISTAN WOULD BE SUCCESSFUL. Retired General Ruslan Aushe, a veteran of the Soviet Afghan war, expressed doubts whether retaliatory U.S. strikes against Afghanistan would hurt anyone other than the civilian population of that country, Interfax reported on 17 September. He noted that the country's infrastructure is already virtually destroyed after two decades of fighting. "There are no vital communications there whose destruction could paralyze Taliban activity," he said. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

FAR EAST MAYOR SEES ATTACKS ON U.S. AS PAYBACK FOR HIROSHIMA... The communist mayor of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatka, Yurii Golenishchev, declared on a local radio station that the 11 September terrorist acts in the U.S. were what Americans got "for Yugoslavia, Palestine, Mexico, and everything. Yes, and perhaps even for Hiroshima!" "Kommersant-Daily" reported on 13 September. His fellow traveler, Kamchatka Governor Mikhail Mashkovtsev, was less harsh but "could not say anything good about the U.S." Thousands of people have been killed, which is a tragedy for the whole world, he noted, added that this occurred "as a direct consequence of the policies of the American government for many years." ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

CHECHEN PRESIDENT OFFERS CONDOLENCES. The Chechenpress website on 13 September carried the text of a letter from Chechen President Aslan Maskhadov expressing his condolences to the American people and government. He said that Chechens are "sincerely and deeply mourning together" with Americans because "America is the only country in the world today which has a tradition of protecting oppressed peoples from enslavement." Maskhadov said that Chechnya is "deeply indignant" at Russian efforts to link Chechnya to the terrorists or to try to exploit the tragedy to "justify their own policy of state terror in Chechnya." Maskhadov's comments coincided with a suggestion by Russian Defense Minister Ivanov that such links exist, and with predictions by various Russian commentators and officials that Washington will now show greater understanding of the threat Russian forces face in Chechnya, news agencies reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

MUSLIM LEADER EXPRESSES CONDOLENCES, BACKS PUTIN�S ANTI-TERRORIST POLICY. Mufti Talgat Tadjutdin told Bashinform on 12 September that he categorically condemns terrorist actions in the U.S. and expressed his condolence to the American people. He supported efforts by President Vladimir Putin on fighting international terrorism including terrorism using Islam as a cover. Tadjutdin said Islam had never justified murder of innocent people, and he called on all countries to unite for fighting terrorism. (Bashkortostan Daily Review, 13 September)

MUFTI SAYS TERRORISM, ISLAM INCOMPATIBLE. Mufti of the Bashkortostan Muslim Religious Board Nurmukhammad khazrat Nigmatullin said on 12 September that Islam and terrorism are incompatible. He said he is concerned about attempts to connect terrorism with Islam. Terrorists who have killed innocent peaceful persons are sinners, he added. (Bashkortostan Daily Review, 13 September)

SHAIMIEV CALLS FOR OPPOSING TERRORISM, NOT PEOPLES OR CONFESSIONS� Returning from Moscow, President Mintimer Shaimiev said in Kazan on 12 August said that he was "worried by the series of terrorist attacks in the US," adding "I hope that after such a large scale-terror, this country will avoid dividing people according to their nationalities or confessions, which would make countries confront each other." In the president�s words, "Terrorism is terrorism, terrorists have to be tracked down and punished, irrespective of what ethnic group or religion they are." (Tatarstan Daily Review, 13 September)

MUSCOVITES SAY WHOLE WORLD MUST BE CONCERNED BY ATTACKS. According to a poll conducted by VTsIOM and reported by Interfax on 15 September, 85 percent of the residents of the Russian capital believe that the terrorist acts in New York and Washington must be a concern for all humanity. At the same time, measures taken in Russia in the wake of the attacks in the U.S. are reinforcing such feelings. Russian police officers have expanded their protection of currency exchanges, Interfax reported on 14 September, Unified Energy Systems stepped up its security in the energy sector, and security was increased at the Duma as well, Russian and Western agencies reported. But a practical effort by Muscovites to help by donating blood was rebuffed by officials who said they had no instructions on whether to allow such donations, "Nezavisimaya gazeta" reported on 14 September. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

POLL SHOWS MUSCOVITES BACK BEEFING UP RUSSIAN FORCES ON AFGHAN BORDER. According to a poll conducted by VTsIOM and reported on Interfax on 17 September, 45 percent of the residents of the Russian capital back the continued presence of Russian forces in Tajikistan and 20 percent believe that the size of those forces must be increased. At the same time, 20 percent favor their withdrawal. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September)

WORKERS VOLUNTEER FUNDS, SERVICES. In Ulyanovsk Oblast, the workers collective of a private food store, "Tikhii omut," decided to send their wages and store proceeds for three days to those victims of the incidents, Interfax-Eurasia reported. The store's manager, Ruslan Shibokaev, is currently trying to find out how to transfer the funds, according to the agency. And, in Primorskii Krai, specially trained workers from the Far Eastern regional center of the Emergency Situations Ministry are prepared to travel to New York to assist in search and rescue operations, ITAR-TASS reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

SERBIA
MIXED REACTIONS TO ATTACKS. Shock, horror, and disbelief were the predominant reactions in the former Yugoslavia to the terrorist attacks, RFE/RL reported on 13 September. An openly anti-American attitude was displayed only by a few Serbian extreme nationalists linked to the former regime, such as Radical Party leader Vojislav Seselj. Some Serbs nonetheless expressed satisfaction over the attack on the Pentagon, dpa reported from Belgrade on 13 September. Others charged that U.S. policies have served to generate terrorism. Predrag Simic, an adviser to Yugoslav President Vojislav Kostunica not known for his pro-American sympathies, told "Blic" that he hopes that the U.S. will soon reduce its role in Kosova and Macedonia. He added that he fears an "irresponsible reaction" by Washington to the terror. There have been no reports of anti-American demonstrations in Serbia or elsewhere. In related news, NATO and U.S. forces in Bosnia, Kosova, and Macedonia have tightened security as a precaution, "The Wall Street Journal Europe" reported on 12 September. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

SLOVAKIA
READY TO BACK U.S. RETALIATORY ACTION AGAINST TERRORISTS. Slovak Foreign Minister Eduard Kukan on 13 September said Slovakia is ready to "assist" the U.S. in possible retaliatory action for the 11 September terrorist attacks, CTK reported. "Slovakia will be able to react promptly and immediately.... We want to cooperate," he said. Kukan specified that Slovakia's participation in NATO's or the U.S.'s possible military action could comprise logistics support, the opening of Slovak air space, or another form of backing. Slovakia hopes to be invited to join NATO at the alliance's summit in Prague in November 2002. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 14 September)

SLOVENIA
SPECIAL CABINET SESSION. Prime Minister Janez Drnovsek said that the government will discuss security issues in a special session on 12 September, Hina reported from Ljubljana. Drnovsek and President Milan Kucan sent telegrams of condolence and support to U.S. President George W. Bush. The Foreign Ministry condemned the terrorist attacks in the U.S. in a statement on 11 September. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 12 September)

TAJIKISTAN
EQUIVOCATION. Tajik Foreign Ministry spokesman Igor Sattarov told journalists in Dushanbe on 16 September that Western media reports that Tajikistan has agreed to make its territory available to the U.S. to launch strikes against Afghanistan are without any foundation, Western agencies reported. Two days earlier, Tajik Premier Oqil Oqilov had said that the Tajik leadership would discuss any such U.S. request for the use of its territory or airspace with Moscow before responding, Interfax and dpa reported. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

UKRAINE
UKRAINE WANTS TO HELP NATO SPOT TERRORISTS. "NATO and Ukraine condemn in the strongest possible terms [the 11 September terrorist attacks on the U.S.] and stand united in their commitment to ensure that those responsible are brought to justice and punished. In the spirit of its distinctive partnership with NATO, Ukraine stands ready to contribute fully to this effort," the NATO-Ukraine Commission said in a statement on 14 September. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September)

RADICAL NATIONALISTS SEE ATTACKS ON U.S. AS 'MORAL SATISFACTION.' While most Ukrainian parties and politicians condemned the 11 September terrorist attacks on the U.S., the radical nationalist Ukrainian National Assembly-Ukrainian National Self-Defense (UNA-UNSO) said these attack are a source of "moral satisfaction" for "millions" and that the attacks can be seen as revenge for the U.S. atomic bombing of Japan and air raids on Vietnam, Libya, Iraq, Afghanistan, Bosnia, and Yugoslavia. UNA-UNSO noted that any global destabilization after the attacks will add to Ukraine's power in the future. ("RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September)

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