Mikhail Khodorkovsky and Platon Lebedev
Once thought to be Russia's richest man, former Yukos head Mikhail Khodorkovsky has been in prison since 2003 on charges of embezzlement and tax evasion that are widely believed to be a politically motivated. His business partner, Platon Lebedev, was arrested and sentenced to thirteen years in prison in 2005 for tax evasion and money laundering. The sentence was later reduced to nine years. Amnesty International declared Khodorkovsky and Lebedev prisoners of conscience after a second prison sentence against them was upheld in May 2011.
Maria Alyokhina and Nadezhda Tolokonnikova (Pussy Riot)
Pussy Riot members Maria Alyokhina and Nadezhda Tolokonnikova are serving two-year prison sentences after being convicted of hooliganism. They were arrested after staging a protest performance against President Vladimir Putin in Moscow's Christ the Savior Orthodox cathedral in February 2012.
In August 2012, a court in the western Russian city of Smolensk sentenced the opposition activist to eight years in jail for drug violations. Taisia Osipova, an activist of the Other Russia movement, was arrested in November 2010 on charges of illegal drug dealing.
Civil rights activist Konstantin Lebedev was convicted of organizing protests in Moscow last year. On April 25, the Moscow City Court sentenced Lebedev to two and a half years in prison. At the start of his trial on April 22, Lebedev pleaded guilty and expressed remorse for his actions.
Businessman and opposition activist Maksim Luzyanin was sentenced to 4 1/2 years in jail in November 2012, after pleading guilty to charges of mass unrest last year.