Police have fired rubber bullets at hundreds of protesters in central Madrid on November 14 as millions of workers went on strike across Europe against austerity measures and rising unemployment.
The largest actions took place in Spain and Portugal, where unions have coordinated strikes.
More than 70 people have been arrested so far in Spain in clashes with riot police.
Spain has the highest unemployment rate in the European Union -- 25 percent -- and is on the brink of calling for a bailout by international lenders.
Portugal accepted a bailout last year.
In Italy, trade unions called for a several-hour work stoppage.
In Greece, a three-hour strike was called by unions.
Smaller protests also took place in Belgium, Germany, France, and some eastern EU states.
Air travel across the continent has been severely disrupted.
Based on reporting by Reuters and AP