Commemorations are being held in Moscow and elsewhere in Russia to remember Russian victims of acts of terrorism.
September 3 is marked in Russia as the Day of Solidarity in the Fight Against Terrorism.
Eight years ago on September 3 more than 330 people were killed, 186 of them children, after Russian security forces stormed a school to free more than 1,000 hostages who had been seized by Chechen separatists in Beslan in the North Caucasus republic of North Ossetia-Alania.
Mourners in Moscow were expected to visit 12 sites in the Russian capital where terrorist acts have taken place in recent years.
A ceremony near a monument to the victims of Beslan was due to be held near the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin in Moscow.
Based on reporting by ITAR-TASS and Interfax