Accessibility links

Breaking News

Qishloq Ovozi

There's been bad blood between Omurbek Tekebaev (above) and his former political ally, Kyrgyz President Almazbek Atambaev, for months now.

The detention on arrival in Bishkek of Omurbek Tekebaev, a veteran politician and leader of the Ata-Meken party, immediately set off political friction in Kyrgyzstan.

Modest protests started the same day and continued on February 27, when a court ordered Tekebaev held for two months while he is investigated on charges of fraud and corruption. The demonstrations continue.

There's been bad blood between Tekebaev and his former political ally, Kyrgyz President Almazbek Atambaev, for months now, and something like this was almost bound to happen.

Tekebaev, who was in politics before Kyrgyzstan declared independence from the Soviet Union, is no stranger to controversy. His Ata-Meken party was the second political party to be registered in the newly sovereign republic in late 1991. (Erkin Kyrgyzstan was the first.) Over the past 25 years, Tekebaev has variously been an ally or an opponent of many of Kyrgyzstan's most senior political figures.

He has been a speaker of parliament, a presidential candidate, and an outspoken critic of Kyrgyz presidents. (Once, as speaker of parliament, he called then-President Kurmanbek Bakiev a "disgrace" and invited him to take advantage of the first available tree to hang himself.)

Tekebaev is from the Akmak Bazar-Korgon district in Kyrgyzstan’s southern Jalal-Abat Province, where some of his supporters attempted to block the main highway between Osh and Bishkek on February 27, to protest Tekebaev’s detention.

Tekebaev was a high-school teacher in the village of Akman in the 1980s when he launched his political career by becoming a local activist. In 1990, he became a people’s deputy in the Supreme Soviet of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic, and in 1991 he became a member of the Supreme Soviet Council and sat on the Committee for Judicial Affairs.

Tekebaev was elected to parliament in 1995 and later that year attempted to run for president, only to have his registration rejected.

WATCH: Kyrgyz Protesters Demand Opposition Leader's Release

Kyrgyz Protesters Demand Opposition Leader's Release
please wait

No media source currently available

0:00 0:01:02 0:00

He was reelected to parliament in 2000 and became deputy speaker of the lower house of parliament. He successfully registered as a presidential candidate later that year and placed second to incumbent Askar Akaev.

He was reelected to parliament in 2005 and named speaker four days after unrest chased Akaev into exile, and shortly thereafter proposed transforming the country’s political system to a parliamentary form of government.

By early 2006, Tekebaev had become an opponent of Akaev's successor. Less than a year into his presidential term, Bakiev refused to attend a February 2006 session of Kyrgyzstan’s Security Council while Tekebaev was present, forcing the latter to leave the room.

Tekebaev quickly resigned, but even that proved contentious as parliament refused to accept the resignation. Tekebaev left the post by the end of February 2006 but remained in parliament and became one of Bakiev’s leading opponents.

In September 2006 came the so-called matryoshka affair. Customs agents in Warsaw, acting on a tip from Bishkek, searched a Russian nesting doll in Tekebaev's possession and found 595 grams of heroin inside. A subsequent investigation linked the president's brother and first deputy chief of the security service, Janysh Bakiev, to the incident, although he rejected suggestions that he had any part in planting heroin in Tekebaev’s luggage. Janysh Bakiev was dismissed from his position but not charged. (National Security Service chief Busurmankul Taabaldiev resigned amid the scandal.) Janysh Bakiev would later file suit against Kyrgyzstan’s parliament for suggesting he was involved in the whole business.

Kyrgyz President Almazbek Atambaev
Kyrgyz President Almazbek Atambaev

By then, Tekebaev found himself at the center of another scandal when then-Prime Minister Feliks Kulov, who had defended Tekebaev during the heroin incident, cited an audio recording handed over by an "unknown person" of a purported conversation among opposition leaders -- including Tekebaev -- and NGO representatives plotting to overthrow the government.

Tekebaev acknowledged it was his voice in the recording but said it was heavily edited. He threatened to sue Kulov and the chief of the National Security Service.

After a constitutional referendum in October 2007 that approved adding 15 seats to the previously 75-seat parliament, President Bakiev called snap parliamentary elections. Tekebaev failed to win a seat, and the subsequent period until parliamentary elections in October 2010 marks the only time in independent Kyrgyzstan’s history that Tekebaev has not been in parliament.

Tekebaev continued to help lead opposition to Bakiev until the latter’s downfall in April 2010, after which Tekebaev emerged as a deputy chairman of the interim government led by Roza Otunbaeva and was named chairman of the Constitutional Council charged with rewriting Kyrgyzstan’s constitution. Tekebaev helped draft the constitution, approved in a national referendum in June 2010, which officially transformed Kyrgyzstan from a presidential to a parliamentary form of government.

Meanwhile, Tekebaev’s Ata-Meken party looked ready to win a plurality in parliamentary elections in October 2010, but Tekebaev’s perceived pro-Western posturing seems to have bothered the Kremlin. In what many regarded as an example of soft power emanating from Moscow, Russian television programs -- widely viewed in Kyrgyzstan -- aired footage that portrayed Tekebaev in an unfavorable light, and an unknown person, or persons, posted video online of Tekebaev in an intimate meeting with a woman who was not his wife.

Ata-Meken placed fifth with 18 seats in the 120-member parliament in 2010 -- last among parliamentary parties. Tekebaev was nominated to be speaker but failed to receive sufficient support.

Then, in 2015, Ata-Meken won 11 seats in parliament, again lowest among the parties that cleared the threshold for representation.

Tensions between Tekebaev and the current president, Atambaev, were noticeable in the run-up to the 2015 elections. Atambaev’s Social Democratic Party took the largest number of seats -- 38 -- an improvement over its second-place showing in 2010 behind Ata-Jurt.

Atambaev’s strong support for a referendum on constitutional amendments held in December was the last straw for Tekebaev. The Ata-Meken leader publicly criticized the idea, as did other former leaders of the interim government that took over after Bakiev was ousted in 2010.

Atambaev used his August 31 Independence Day address to attack Tekebaev and others, including ex-President Otunbaeva, who was in attendance and walked out in the middle of Atambaev’s speech.

Since then, Tekebaev and some of his supporters have publicly called for investigations into how Atambaev acquired property on which to build a residence outside Bishkek and into how Atambaev, a successful businessman before his presidential term, earned his fortune. Atambaev and some of his supporters have countered with calls for probes into Tekebaev’s business activities and the sources of his wealth.

Something had to happen, and it just did. And some in Kyrgyzstan see this as Atambaev’s revenge, with a presidential election scheduled for the autumn.

By itself, this latest episode with Tekebaev is unlikely to spark the sort of protests seen in 2005 or 2010. But it does add to a list of problems that includes unemployment, poverty, government corruption, a controversial deal with Canada's Centerra to work Kyrgyzstan’s Kumtor gold deposit, and dozens more issues that Kyrgyzstan’s political opposition has always been able to play upon to challenge the president.

Ulan Eshmatov of RFE/RL’s Kyrgyz Service contributed to this report.
The views expressed in this blog post do not necessarily reflect the views of RFE/RL.
Leaders of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) pose during a meeting of the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council in Astana, Kazakhstan, in May of last year. (From left to right: Armenian President Serzh Sarkisian, Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev, Russian President Vladimir Putin, and Kyrgyz President Almazbek Atambaev.)

Vladimir Putin makes a trip to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan on February 27-28. Two of the countries -- Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan -- are members of the Russian-led Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), and Tajikistan is currently negotiating entry into the organization. The EEU is bound to be on the agenda when Putin meets with all three Central Asian leaders.

The EEU, which besides Russia, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan also includes Armenia and Belarus, has seen mixed results since it was formally launched at the start of 2015. There have been complaints but there have also been some benefits.

To take a look at how the EEU has influenced the situation in the Central Asian states that are members, RFE/RL assembled a Majlis, or panel, to discuss some of the successes and failures of the EEU so far, and the prospects for the organization going forward as Tajikistan prepares to become a member.

Moderating the discussion was RFE/RL Media Relations Manager Muhammad Tahir. From Bishkek, Edil Baisalov, a political analyst and chief of staff in former Kyrgyz President Roza Otunbaeva's administration joined the talk. Taking part from London was John MacLeod, a senior CIS analyst at Oxford Analytica. From RFE/RL's Kazakh Service, known locally as Azattyq, Assem Tokaeva participated. I had a few things to say also.

The idea of some sort of Eurasian union has been around for more than 20 years. Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev first spoke of such an organization in 1994 and there have been several attempts at forming some sort of single economic space within the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) since then.

Bad Timing

Putin resurrected the idea and has been pushing it since 2011. On January 1, 2015, Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, which had been members of a predecessor economic bloc called the CIS Customs Union, launched the EEU. Armenia officially joined the next day and Kyrgyzstan became a member in August that year.

The EEU has thus far not provided the sort of economic boost to its members that member states expected. But MacLeod explained the launch came at a bad time.

"It started at a time when Russia's economy went into decline and Russia's relationship with the West deteriorated sharply," MacLeod noted.

As Tokaeva pointed out, in Kazakhstan's case "the balance of trade is unfavorable to Kazakhstan, according to [the] statistics, exports to the union countries in the last nine months of 2016 were about $3 billion, against $6.5 billion of imports, and actually the export numbers are… 31.6% lower than in 2015."

Baisalov said: "The shock to our [Kyrgyzstan's] economy was stronger than we expected and so far our losses have outweighed benefits." He mentioned, "In 2012, in the peak year of our garment industry, we produced [goods worth] $204 million, then last year we produced only around $9.6 million."

Baisalov said part of the problem was that "thanks to the devaluation of the Russian ruble, we believe that lots of our industry not only shut down but actually relocated to Russia."

Upside For Kyrgyz Migrants

Of course, there has been one very important benefit of EEU membership for Kyrgyzstan as Baisalov noted. "A positive result, if you want, comes with our labor migrants in Russia who are now different from migrants from Uzbekistan and Tajikistan," he said.

Remittances from Russia to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have been falling drastically since 2013. There has been a decrease to Kyrgyzstan also, but according to Russia's Central Bank, during the first nine months of 2016, Kyrgyz migrant laborers in Russia sent back $1.286 billion, a 21% increase compared to 2015, and the number of migrant laborers going to Russia from Kyrgyzstan increased while for both Tajikistan and Uzbekistan the figures continued to show reductions.

That will likely make EEU membership more attractive to Tajikistan. About one in every eight citizens of Tajikistan works in Russia and Tajikistan has the dubious distinction of being the most remittance-dependent country in the world, according to the World Bank.

But in terms of trade within the bloc, the EEU is still far from fulfilling its promise, according to Tokaeva. "We observe a lot of evidence of [unresolved] issues among the members of this union and we still do not see this single market as it was declared," she said.

Russia is the dominant partner in the EEU and Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka and Kazakh leader Nursultan Nazarbaev have expressed dissatisfaction in the past at Russia's habit of arbitrarily implementing new regulations without consulting EEU partners.

"We have a small number of economies here, we have one absolutely dominant economy, the Russian one," MacLeod said. But he went on to say that part of problem for the EEU is that the foreign policies of individual countries are at times significantly different and this complicates their economic cooperation.

"A structural defect of the Eurasian Union that differentiates it from the European Union is that it can't really operate as a kind of external player because the members don't genuinely have a common position on say, Ukraine," MacLeod said.

Other Complications

The brief Russian spat with Turkey in the wake of Ankara's downing of a Russian warplane along the Turkish-Syrian border in November 2015 was another example of the problems the EEU faces.

Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan have close trade ties to Turkey and Russia's temporary decision to close its borders to trade coming from or going to Turkey complicated the situation for Central Asia in general, but certainly made things difficult for the Central Asian EEU members.

Another complication for the Central Asian EEU members is their relationship with China. Beijing is a leading, if not the leading, investment and trade partner with all the Central Asian states. And now China is pushing its One Belt One Road (OBOR), a massive trade project that foresees linking dozens of countries by road, rail, and maritime routes.

EEU regulations present obstacles to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan's trade with its giant and rich neighbor but at the same time, as MacLeod said, the Chinese have shown "they can actually deliver when they decide to build something." The oil pipeline from Kazakhstan to China, the gas pipelines from Turkmenistan through Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to China, the new railway from eastern Uzbekistan to a location near the capital, Tashkent, and newly paved roads in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are proof of this.

The Majlis discussed these issues in further detail and also looked at the some of the other aspects of EEU regulations and how they are forcing the Central Asian members to change their policies.

An audio recording of the Majlis podcast can be heard here:

Majlis Podcast -- Central Asia And Putin's Eurasian Economic Union
please wait

No media source currently available

0:00 0:38:43 0:00
Direct link

Listen to or download the Majlis podcast above or subscribe to the Majlis on iTunes.

Load more

About This Blog

Qishloq Ovozi is a blog by RFE/RL Central Asia specialist Bruce Pannier that aims to look at the events that are shaping Central Asia and its respective countries, connect some of the dots to shed light on why those processes are occurring, and identify the agents of change.

Bruce Pannier
Bruce Pannier

Content draws on the extensive knowledge and contacts of RFE/RL's Central Asian services but also allow scholars in the West, particularly younger scholars who will be tomorrow’s experts on the region, opportunities to share their views on the evolving situation at this Eurasian crossroad.

The name means "Village Voice" in Uzbek. But don't be fooled, Qishloq Ovozi is about all of Central Asia.



Majlis Podcast: Kyrgyzstan’s Kings Of Corruption
please wait

No media source currently available

0:00 0:34:52 0:00
Podcast: Majlis
Latest episode
Majlis Podcast: Kyrgyzstan’s Kings Of Corruption
Podcast: Majlis