The unrest began in May as a protest against the redevelopment of Istanbul's Taksim Square and adjacent Gezi Park. Following a harsh crackdown by police, it snowballed into nationwide demonstrations that lasted for weeks.
In a report on the Gezi Park demonstrations published on October 2, Amnesty International said protesters were severely beaten, resulting in one death. The report also said live ammunition was used, killing one protester, and that police frequently fired plastic bullets directly at protesters’ heads and upper bodies.
The report said tear gas canisters were routinely fired directly at protesters, bystanders, and sometimes into residential buildings and medical facilities, and that some women protesters were sexually abused.