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Garri Kasparov is pictured here during a "March of Millions" protest rally in Moscow in 2012.
The European Court of Human Rights has criticized Russia over the 2007 arrest of Garry Kasparov and eight other opposition activists.

The court found on October 3 that the arrest of the former world chess champion and eight other activists ahead of an antigovernment demonstration in Moscow had been "disproportionate to the aim of maintaining public order."

It also ruled that Russia had violated two articles of the European Convention on Human Rights that cover the right to a fair trial and freedom of assembly and association.

The applicants were convicted for having breached the regulations on holding demonstrations and were ordered to pay a fine.

The European court judgment is not final. Parties in the case have three months to appeal.

With reporting by AFP
A protester wears a gas mask during clashes with police near Taksim Square in Istanbul in June.
Rights watchdog Amnesty International said Turkish authorities committed human rights abuses "on a massive scale" while trying to quell antigovernment demonstrations this summer.

The unrest began in May as a protest against the redevelopment of Istanbul's Taksim Square and adjacent Gezi Park. Following a harsh crackdown by police, it snowballed into nationwide demonstrations that lasted for weeks.

In a report on the Gezi Park demonstrations published on October 2, Amnesty International said protesters were severely beaten, resulting in one death. The report also said live ammunition was used, killing one protester, and that police frequently fired plastic bullets directly at protesters’ heads and upper bodies.

The report said tear gas canisters were routinely fired directly at protesters, bystanders, and sometimes into residential buildings and medical facilities, and that some women protesters were sexually abused.

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