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Qishloq Ovozi

Ethnic Kazakhs pray in a mosque in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

This week's Majlis Podcast discussed China's heavy-handed campaign in the western Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR).

Beijing's concerns about terrorism getting even a toehold in China have led to an unprecedented campaign of cultural and religious eradication in Xinjiang aimed at Muslim groups, mainly the traditional inhabitants of the area, the Uyghurs, but increasingly targeting other Muslim groups such as Kazakhs and Kyrgyz.

Some ethnic Kazakhs and Kyrgyz who were once Chinese citizens, who in recent years have become citizens of neighboring Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, have disappeared while visiting Xinjiang and turned up in reeducation camps that are sprouting up throughout the region and, by some accounts, where more than 1 million of Xinjiang's Muslims might now be interned.

It is having an effect on the way some in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan view their eastern neighbor.

RFE/RL's media-relations manager, Muhammad Tahir, moderated a discussion on what Chinese authorities are doing in Xinjiang and what the effect is on relations with neighbors Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

From Washington, Alim Seytoff, the head of Radio Free Asia's Uyghur Service, joined the talk. From Almaty, Kazakhstan, Gene Bunin, an independent researcher on both sides of the Chinese-Central Asian border, took part in the discussion. From Prague, Galym Bokash of RFE/RL's Kazakh Service, known locally as Azattyq, participated. And I said some things as well.

Majlis Podcast: China's Policies In Xinjiang Straining Ties With Central Asian Neighbors
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Listen to the podcast above or subscribe to the Majlis on iTunes.

Bakhtiyar Kudratillaev

Many things have changed in Uzbekistan in the two years since longtime President Islam Karimov died and Shavkat Mirziyoev came to power.

Many of those changes appear to have been positive. But there have also been some arguably negative developments, including the attitude of Uzbek authorities toward suspected or known underworld figures.

For the first time in about two decades, there has been a gathering in Uzbekistan of the "Vory v Zakone,” or “Thieves-in-Law,” according to RFE/RL’s Uzbek Service, known locally as Ozodlik. The phrase, with roots in Soviet times, is a reference to leaders of prison gangs or groups, many of whom were, or became, bosses of organized criminal groups.

Sources told Ozodlik that Bakhtiyar Kudratillaev (aka Bakhti Tashkentsky) invited members of Kazakhstan's and Russia’s criminal underworlds to Uzbekistan to discuss control of organized-crime prison groups in that country.

During Karimov's administration, such groups were generally prevented from thriving locally and had largely disappeared by the end of the 1990s. Kudratillaev remained in Uzbekistan, although he faced charges over the years ranging from the sale of illegal narcotics to weapons possession. He was frequently jailed and was last released from prison in 2014, purportedly for health reasons.

Kudratillaev’s power was believed to have been declining late last year after several arrests of suspected crime figures with whom he was linked, but he apparently retains sufficient stature to have been able to attract alleged kingpins to Tashkent on August 20.

Gafur Rahimov
Gafur Rahimov

Then there is Gafur Rahimov, an alleged narcotics kingpin who the U.S. Treasury Department put on its sanction list in 2012, describing him as “one of the leaders of Uzbek organized crime with a specialty in the organized production of drugs in the countries of Central Asia.

Rahimov left Uzbekistan in 2010, reportedly living mainly in Dubai. He was charged in Uzbekistan with financial crimes and forgery of documents in February 2013. But just a few weeks after Mirziyoev came to power, in September 2016, Rahimov’s name was said to have been removed from Interpol’s wanted list.

In January, Rahimov was named interim president of the International Boxing Federation (IBF), just one month after the U.S Treasury department had frozen the assets of several Thieves-in-Law, including Rahimov. In July, Ozodlik reported that the charges in Uzbekistan of financial crimes and forgery of documents had been dropped. Rahimov does not appear to have returned to Uzbekistan.

Salim Abduvaliev
Salim Abduvaliev

And there is Salim Abduvaliev, who describes himself as a successful businessman. Some reports suggest “Salimbay” Abduvaliev owes much of his success to his reputed role as an underworld boss. Prior to Mirziyoev’s election as president on December 4, 2016, a widely circulated photograph appeared to show Abduvaliev wearing a T-shirt with Mirziyoev’s picture on it and the words “My President” written below.

Among the pledges that Mirziyoev has made since coming to power is one to clean up corruption. But the names of infamous figures linked to criminal activities are appearing more frequently since Mirziyoev became president than they did under Karimov.

The views expressed in this blog post do not necessarily reflect those of RFE/RL.

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About This Blog

Qishloq Ovozi is a blog by RFE/RL Central Asia specialist Bruce Pannier that aims to look at the events that are shaping Central Asia and its respective countries, connect some of the dots to shed light on why those processes are occurring, and identify the agents of change. Content will draw on the extensive knowledge and contacts of RFE/RL's Central Asian services but also allow scholars in the West, particularly younger scholars who will be tomorrow’s experts on the region, opportunities to share their views on the evolving situation at this Eurasian crossroad. The name means "Village Voice" in Uzbek. But don't be fooled, Qishloq Ovozi is about all of Central Asia.