Accessibility links

Breaking News

Balkans Without Borders

Milorad Dodik, president of Republika Srpska

Not long ago, during an extensive dive into my e-mails in search of a friend’s address, I came across a story forwarded to me by journalist Remy Ourdan. He invariably picks out the most interesting stories coming out of the Balkans, and the headline immediately caught my attention: Serb President Bans Teaching About Sarajevo Siege, Srebrenica.

I did not realize at the time that I was at the wrong end of my inbox, and failed to notice the dateline of the story. Perhaps I was just too dumbfounded, and puzzled at how the president of Republika Srpska could ban teaching about the siege of Sarajevo and the Srebrenica genocide -- as if these topics were even part of the school curriculum in his entity. After reading the article, I realized that the unsettling past would henceforth not be taught even in classrooms including Bosniak kids in Republika Srpska.

“It’s impossible to use here the textbooks...which say the Serbs have committed genocide and kept Sarajevo under siege,” Milorad Dodik was quoted as saying in the article. I promptly tweeted the story.

The following day, the story had been retweeted several hundred times -- and that's when I noticed that it had been published nine months ago.

Somewhat embarrassed, I was about to tweet an explanation, and an apology for having missed the fact that the Reuters story was from June 2017. But before doing so, I read through the deluge of retweets.

I was fully expecting a backlash for my social-media faux pas. However, to my surprise, most comments -- even those that pointed out that the story was old -- were expressions of concern for a country that refused to deal with its past, and were critical of Dodik.

“When you don’t know your past, it is inevitable to repeat it,” one of the retweets said.

Ivana Cvetkovic made an excuse for me and praised me for reposting the story at a time when Dodik appears to be rearming Republika Srpska.

Many thought that the news was fresh.

Milos Ciric was among the first to notice the time lag, but he generously assumed that the posting of an old story was intentional, in view of Dodik’s ratcheting up of ethnic tensions over the past few months:

Former U.S. diplomat Richard Kauzlarich was among the many who retweeted the article, expressing regret for the support Dodik had received from U.S. diplomats in the past:

Many of the retweeters read the story much in the same light as I had, seeing it as part of a concerted campaign by the president of Republika Srpska to destabilize Bosnia -- a campaign that has intensified over the past few months, with Dodik growing ever bolder in his actions and pronouncements:

Many others expressed similar sentiments, pointing out the dangers of genocide denial:

When it was published, in June 2017, the Reuters article went almost unnoticed. However, thanks to Dodik’s actions and statements over the past few months, it seemed like fresh news and generated an avalanche of comments.

I must still own up to having posted old news.

But the overwhelming response has been yet another reminder that errors can be useful and often lead to new awareness. In this case, “old news” came as a fresh warning of the growing fragility of peace in Bosnia.

The views expressed in this blog post do not necessarily reflect those of RFE/RL.
Turkish Nobel laureate author Orhan Pamuk poses during an interview at his house in Istanbul in Febuary 2015.

Whether he likes it or not, former Croatian President Stipe Mesic will officially be declared an honorary citizen of Sarajevo, the Bosnian capital. That was the city council's decision on February 28 despite Mesic's public statement that he would not accept the honor.

What rankles with Mesic are the circumstances that led to the decision, following an embarrassing about-face by the local authorities.

This year, the honorary citizenship was meant to have been given to award-winning Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk. The seven-member selection commission had voted unanimously to back the nomination, put forward by Buybook, the Sarajevo publisher of the Bosnian translations of the Nobel laureate's books.

However, the vote was repeated two weeks later and this time resulted in 4-3 opposition to the proposal. On second thought, the commission reasoned, Pamuk "had not done much for the city of Sarajevo."

The award is given annually, and foreign nationals are eligible if they are deemed to have contributed to Sarajevo's advancement, "the improvement of international relations, and the values of solidarity, democracy, humanitarianism, and mutual tolerance." Previous recipients include Austrian politician Valentin Inzko, currently the high representative for Bosnia-Herzegovina, and U.S. journalist Christiane Amanpour.

Damir Uzunovic, the owner and director of Buybook and the original proponent of the idea to honor Pamuk, sees the city council's reversal of its decision as driven by fear of angering an increasingly assertive Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

"It's clear that the members of the commission wished to spare the current Turkish regime a decision that would have been contrary to its wishes," he told RFE/RL's Balkan Service.

Others saw it as a local power play, a way to show precisely who's in charge.

"It's not about Orhan Pamuk's standing in Turkey, or the popularity of his works; it's a signal to the people of Bosnia, not Turkey or the Turkish government," said Nedzad Ibrahimovic, a philosophy professor from Tuzla, northeast of Sarajevo. "If someone is going to be honored, and the world media report on that impending award, and suddenly that decision is reversed, the message to Bosnian citizens is clear: If we can prevent you from honoring Pamuk, we can also stop you from thinking with your own head."

The withdrawal of the honor will not hurt Pamuk, Ibrahimovic said, but is definitely Sarajevo's loss. "It's simply a shame. It's embarrassing to read about it in the media," he said on RFE/RL's Balkan Service's Most program.

The president of the Bosnian PEN Center, Goran Simic, also reacted to the Sarajevo authorities' decision, issuing a "sincere apology to Orhan Pamuk" in the name of the country's writers "for the deep state of xenophobia that plagues Bosnia."

"It would have been an honor to call Pamuk a fellow citizen, as someone who has spoken out on the Armenian genocide, and who, in his literary works drawing on different periods of his own country's history, has addressed the suppression of the freedom of speech by those in power. It would have been an honor to host one of the most renowned and most read contemporary authors, as a symbol of multicultural Sarajevo and Bosnia, in the same way in which we were proud to honor American writer Susan Sontag," Simic said in his statement, adding that the city council had "brought shame" to Sarajevo with its reversal of the decision to honor Pamuk.

The decision was also described as "disastrous and shameful" by Bosnian writer Ivan Lovric. "Actions like these are proper to regimes that we characterize as repressive, closed, and undemocratic," Lovric wrote on his blog.

He pointed to the fact that a municipal commission had reached this decision to deny Pamuk honorary citizenship "in the name of a city and its citizens, many of whom had lived through its siege (1992-95), defending the city's multiethnic character, had participated in the organization of a Winter Olympics (1984), and who firmly believe that Sarajevo is an open city."

According to Lovric, the council's decision made the city seem "small and provincial."

Bosnian director Dino Mustafic sees the actions of the city authorities as an act of self-censorship and subservience to the Turkish government.

"The explanation given [about Pamuk having 'not done much for Sarajevo'] is absurd and senseless. He is a Nobel prizewinner, one of the greatest living writers, and his contribution to the global cultural heritage is indisputable. There wasn't even any direct pressure from Turkey. Merely a desire to avoid upsetting the sultan in Ankara," Mustafic told RFE/RL's Balkan Service.

Following the public outcry, Sarajevo Mayor Abdulah Skaka issued a statement defending the decision to confer honorary citizenship to Mesic, arguing that the proposal to honor Pamuk did not secure a majority of votes; it was therefore not a question of taking the award away from Pamuk to give it to someone else.

Former Croatian President Stipe Mesic declined the honorary citizenship on offer.
Former Croatian President Stipe Mesic declined the honorary citizenship on offer.

However, Mesic himself was left unimpressed, and declined the honor. "A writer and a politician simply cannot be in the same competition. It's clearly a political decision, and I did not want to be a part of it. I am still a friend of Sarajevo and Bosnia, but I cannot participate in something like this," he said.

Despite the protestations from city hall, with their change of heart the Sarajevo authorities have angered not only those who consider Pamuk a worthy champion of the civilizational values that the city itself symbolized during its siege, but also the man they chose to honor instead. An own goal, it seems, no matter how one looks at it.

The views expressed in this blog post do not necessarily reflect those of RFE/RL

Load more

About This Blog

Balkans Without Borders offers personal commentary on contemporary Balkan politics and culture. It is written by Gordana Knezevic, senior journalist and former award-winning editor of the Sarajevo daily Oslobodjenje, as well as the director of RFE/RL’s Balkan Service between 2008 and 2016. The blog reflects on the myriad ways in which the absurdities of Balkan politics and the ongoing historical shifts and realignments affect the lives of people in the region.


Latest Posts