The prize committee announced on July 1 that the jury of 29 European lawyers had awarded the prize to Vadim Kuramshin.
The prize will be officially presented on December 5 in Paris.
Kuramshin was found guilty of extortion and sentenced to 12 years in prison in December 2012.
In August 2012, he had been sentenced to one year of limited movement on the same charges. After he participated in an OSCE conference in Europe, prosecutors ordered a retrial.
The Ludovic-Trarieux Human Rights Prize, created in 1984, is awarded each year to a lawyer for his or her contributions to the defense of human rights.
Nelson Mandela was the first recipient of the prize in 1985.