Russia's first-ever publicly displayed statue of the controversial 16th-century tsar, Ivan the Terrible, has been unveiled by authorities in the city of Oryol amid protests by city residents.
The statue has been condemned by various factions within Russia's political establishment -- including government officials in Moscow, opposition politicians, and journalists.
The unveiling on October 14 marks the 450th anniversary of the southwestern city, which was founded as a fortress by Ivan the Terrible on September 5, 1566.
Ivan the Terrible carried out mass repressions with the "Oprichnina," the original Russian secret police force that he founded. He is also said to have killed his own son.
The unveiling came a day after the 464th anniversary of the fall of Kazan -- then the capital of the Kazan Khanate, which is now the capital of Russia's Tatarstan region.
Tatar historians say Kazan defenders and residents were brutally tortured and killed by Ivan the Terrible's forces after they took the city on October 13, 1552, following a 42-day siege.