Monday, December 29, 2014


New Competing Claims On Downing Of MH17

Following a Dutch television report that appeared to corroborate the widely-held theory that a pro-Russian separatist-held Buk missile launcher shot down a Malaysian Airlines flight, Moscow is now vigorously promoting new claims that a Ukrainian jet caused flight MH17 to crash. 

The report for Dutch RTL Nieuws claims that a resident of eastern Ukraine has provided three high-resolution photos -- two showing plumes of smoke consistent with a Buk missile system and a third showing what appears to be the aftermath of the Malaysian flight crash. 

The timestamps on the photos, which were geolocated to the area of the crash, correspond to the time when the plane went down. 

Two experts working with the Dutch team said they could find no evidence of tampering. 

Eliot Higgins, whose Bellingcat website used open-source information to track the movements of the Buk believed by many to have brought down MH17, told RFE/RL it's "extremely likely" the photographs are genuine and are further evidence of a surface-to-air missile launch.

"The Buk we tracked on July 17 unloaded north of that area, and was seen driving down the road towards the area, so it certainly all fits together very nicely," he said over e-mail. "Everything in the photo matches what we know already." 

But on December 22 -- just hours after the Dutch report -- the Russian "Komsomolskaya Pravda" tabloid published an interview with an alleged anonymous former Ukrainian soldier who claimed that he could provide a firsthand account of the July 17 disaster, which killed all 298 people onboard.

According to his account, a pilot in an SU-25 aircraft left his base in Dnipropetrovsk equipped with R-60 air-to-air missiles shortly before the Boeing 777 was shot down. When the "very scared" looking pilot returned there were no missiles left on the twin-engine Soviet-built plane. 

The pilot, who the supposed witness names in the "Komsomolskaya Pravda" report, allegedly told another service member that "the plane was in the wrong place at the wrong time." 

Four days after the July crash, the Russian Defense Ministry floated the theory that an SU-25 had shot down the Malaysian jet, but aviation experts quickly cast doubt on the claim.

At the time, David Gleave, an aviation and safety researcher at Loughborough University, told RFE/RL that when loaded with missiles the SU-25 could not reach an altitude much higher than 5 kilometers -- MH17 was flying at around 10 kilometers when it was hit. 

According to the Russian-backed witness, the plane was able to overcome this hindrance by turning its nose up and firing into the air. 

Pavel Felgenhauer, a journalist and military analyst, told the independent Snob.ru that the new Russian claims are "complete garbage." 

Felgenhauer said the SU-25 would not have had the capacity to catch up to a Boeing 777 at cruising speed. And because the R-60 is a heat-seeking missile, he said it does not make sense that the nose of MH17 appears to have been hit rather than the engine. 

Ukraine's Security Service said the alleged Ukrainian pilot did not fly on the date of the MH17 crash and that his plane had been taken out of commission for repairs on July 16. 

But in a statement, Russia's Investigative Committee said "the way he behaved and from his stated facts, the investigators had no doubts about the sincerity of the information" provided by the alleged witness. 

The law-enforcement authority, which has had a combative relationship with Kyiv since battles between government forces and pro-Russian separatists broke out in eastern Ukraine last April, also said its source had passed a polygraph test.

Higgins, said the new Russian story may be meant to "confuse the situation." 

"You just have to look at how quickly that story and other stories related to it were spread in the wake of [the Dutch report]."

-- Glenn Kates


Video The Kremlin's Top 75 Lies About The Ukraine Crisis

"It's part of their war effort," says host Sam King. "It's their first line of offense against other countries. It's more than propaganda."

The folks at StopFake.org are committed to uncovering untrue or misleading information being disseminated by Russian media about the crisis in Ukraine.

And now StopFake has published a video (below) that runs down the Top 75 lies and untruths of 2014.

"Obviously, when you see these, you'll see there's a purpose behind all of these deliberate attempts from the Kremlin to spread disinformation about the war in Ukraine," says the video's host, Sam King. "It's part of their war effort. It's their first line of offense against other countries. It's more than propaganda."

StopFake says most of the cases cited find Kremlin-back media companies using old or mislabeled photographs to create false reports.

We'd like to hear your favorite Kremlin untruths about the Ukraine crisis. They can be examples cited in the video or perhaps ones that have not received a lot of attention.

Just leave your favorites in our comments section.


U.S. Firm Eyes Lawsuit Over Russian TV's 'Hateful' Antigay Report

The world through Russian state television's eyes

Carl Schreck

A U.S. company says it is exploring legal action after its advertisement was manipulated on Russian state television to suggest Western countries are corrupting children with sex education and tolerant views toward homosexuals.

Fathead, a Detroit-based company specializing in sports and entertainment decals, said in a statement to RFE/RL: "We will not tolerate the reconstruction of one of our family friendly TV spots into a hateful, bigoted, and outrageous attack on the gay community as well as children."

A November 28 report by Russian state broadcaster Rossia-1 used footage from a 2012 Fathead commercial in which a father surprises his young son with a monster-truck decal on his bedroom wall.

Footage from the ad aired in the Russian report showed drawings of naked men photoshopped over the truck decal in what Rossia-1 portrayed as a dangerous example of Western sexual values.

"Is this how a child's playroom should look?" the report's narrator asks over footage of the boy's stunned, joyous reaction.

Fathead says it found the original video on YouTube and that the family of the boy granted permission to the company to use it for an advertisement.

The company is "exploring any and all legal actions available to remove the fraudulent and unauthorized alteration of one of our national TV commercials," it said in the statement.

"We will vigorously pursue those who created this abhorrent depiction of our content, as well as those [who] host it online, to facilitate their prosecution to the full extent of the law,” Fathead added.

The altered footage was aired by Rossia-1 on its show "Special Correspondent," which boasts that it delivers the "most incisive investigations" by the network's "best correspondents."

The program, which features roundtable-style debates as well, frequently takes aim at Kremlin critics who in turn have accused the show’s correspondents of producing hatchet pieces based on misrepresentations and outright fabrications.

TAMPERED WITH: The manipulated footage appears at the 43:56 mark in this full Rossia-1 program.

 

Russian President Vladimir Putin last year signed a law banning "propaganda of nontraditional sexual relationships" in what is widely seen as part of his broader shift toward conservative values to shore up his political base. 

Russian officials have claimed the law is aimed at protecting children and encouraging Russia's birthrate, while Western governments and rights activists call it discriminatory against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community.

 


Ukraine Unspun: Chechnya War Pic Passed Off As Ukraine Atrocity By Hackers, Russian TV

This photo -- showing a Russian soldiers inspecting bodies of civilians in a mass grave in Chechnya in 1995 -- was used by Russia's state-owned Channel One television to highlight recent Ukrainian suffering.

A day before the October 26 parliamentary elections in Ukraine, hackers accessed electronic billboards in Kyiv and broadcast gruesome images of what they portrayed as civilian carnage wrought by Ukrainian forces battling pro-Russian separatists in the east of the country.

Russian state-owned Channel One television then aired a report on the stunt, describing the photographs as “horrifying images of the events in Donbas,” a reference to the Donetsk and Luhansk areas where separatists control of swaths of land.

At least one of these images, however, pre-dates the Ukraine conflict by nearly two decades. It originally showed a Russian soldier standing over mass graves of civilians in Chechnya in 1995 during Russia's own bloody battle with separatists in the restive North Caucasus republic.

The image was snapped by photographer Alexander Nemenov on March 31, 1995, at an Orthodox cemetery in Chechnya's capital, Grozny, according to the AFP photo archive. The bodies were those of civilians "killed in winter fighting" that were "exhumed for identification," according to AFP.

The soldier was cropped out of the image broadcast October 25 on the Kyiv billboards. Only the dozens of decaying bodies sprawled out in a shallow ditch were shown from the original photograph.

A capture of the Russian Channel One report, in which the Russian troop seen in the original photo (above) has been cropped out.A capture of the Russian Channel One report, in which the Russian troop seen in the original photo (above) has been cropped out.
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A capture of the Russian Channel One report, in which the Russian troop seen in the original photo (above) has been cropped out.
A capture of the Russian Channel One report, in which the Russian troop seen in the original photo (above) has been cropped out.

A group calling itself "Cyber Berkut" took credit for the billboard cyberattack.

It was not the first time that disturbing images of violence in the North Caucasus have been passed off as evidence of atrocities by Ukraine’s government in the conflict.

In May, state-owned Russian broadcaster Rossiya-1 used video material aired 18 months earlier in a report on an antiterrorist operation in the Russian republic of Kabardino-Balkaria. The footage was used to suggest that Kyiv forces murdered a civilian to intimidate separatists in the Donetsk region.

Kremlin-appointed media boss Dmitry Kiselyov later called the broadcast "an error" but "in no way a manipulation." He said that "young, nymph video technicians" were responsible.

Footage of the hijacked electronic billboards aired by Channel One included the image of the mass grave in Chechnya.

The hackers’ montage flashed other photographs of the dead and maimed as well, alternating these images with headshots of Ukrainian politicians, including Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk, whose People’s Front Party was running neck and neck with President Petro Poroshenko's bloc to win the election, according to partial results as of October 27.

Each politician’s photograph in the video was embossed with a red stamp reading, "War Criminal."

The United Nations has accused both the Ukrainian government and pro-Russian separatists of abuses in the seven-month-old conflict, while rights group like Amnesty International charge that both sides have engaged in torture, shelling of civilian areas, and summary executions.

John Dalhuisen, the Europe and Central Asia director at Amnesty, singled out the Russian media last week for its reporting on atrocities, saying that "some of the more shocking cases" it has reported "have been hugely exaggerated."

Cyber Berkut takes its name from the disbanded Berkut riot-police force, which has been implicated in the February killing of 100 protesters in Kyiv during street protests against then-President Viktor Yanukovych.

The group claimed responsibility for cyberattacks on NATO websites earlier this year.

-- Carl Schreck


The Mysterious Professor Haag: Russian Media's Favored 'Expert' Has Dubious Credentials

Quotes from German "Professor" Lorenz Haag often appear in Russian media even though his level of academic expertise appears to be bogus.

Yury Veksler and Claire Bigg

German Professor Lorenz Haag is what you'd call a Kremlin apologist. 

Russian media regularly quotes him as praising President Vladimir Putin's leadership, defending Russia's actions in Ukraine, and urging the West to take a softer line toward Moscow.

"Professor" Haag, however, is by all accounts no professor.

And the organization he allegedly heads, the German "Agency for Global Communications," has also been denounced as bogus.

Dmitry Khmelnitsky, a noted Russian architectural historian based in Berlin, was the first to cast doubt on the purported academic's credentials.

"Professor Lorenz Haag, the head of the Agency for Global Communications, exists only in the imagination of ITAR-TASS correspondents who have interviewed him regularly and for many years in the capacity of 'German expert,'" Khmelnitsky wrote in an October 6 post on Facebook. "There is no such professor in Germany. And no such agency."

Khmelnitsky's allegations have sparked intense speculation on the Russian Internet about Haag's identity, motives, or even existence.

According to Russian blogger Pavel Gnilorybov, the state-run ITAR-TASS agency -- which recently reverted to its Soviet-era name TASS -- created the fictitious professor back in 2007. 

"Russian media have always had difficulties with foreign mouthpieces," he wrote. "ITAR-TASS workers went for broke; they made up a German professor with a resume and a title."

Since his alleged creation, "Professor Haag" has been actively solicited by TASS -- more particularly by its correspondent Vladimir Smelov -- and his comments have been republished in a range of Russian newspapers, inducing "Izvestia," "Vzglyad," and "Duel."

Over the years, Haag has backed the Kremlin's stance on South Ossetia, slammed U.S. plans to deploy missile-defense components in Poland, praised the Soviet Union's role in World War II, and waxed lyrical about the legacy of Yuri Gagarin's space flight.

More recently, in an article published by "Vzglyad" in May and based on a TASS interview, he claimed that many Germans understood "the actions of Russia toward Crimea and the desire of Crimeans themselves" to join the Russian Federation.

The current Ukrainian government, he continued, has "no sympathy" for Russian speakers -- who, he rather oddly declared, inherited their language "genetically." 

"For them," he concluded, "Russian land is where Russian people live."

Research conducted by RFE/RL into Haag's academic record failed to produce any result or even indication as to what discipline he allegedly holds a professorship in.

No trace, either, of his Agency for Global Communications.

A picture of Haag, however, does show up on the website of the Institute for Economic Innovation in Chemnitz. The snapshot identifies him as chairman of the institute's scientific advisory board.

Calls placed to the contact number given on the institute's website were answered by a prerecorded message saying it was "not assigned." 

Haag also appears to hold the title of "member of the presidium of the Russian Federation of Cosmonauts in Europe, the United States, and Canada."

According to Khmelnitsky, Haag used to work for the so-called Security Academy, a German-based organization with ties to Russian security services.

The academy, he says, was shut down by Moscow in 2008 after being exposed in German media as a recruitment operation for Russia's security service, the FSB.

The allegation appears to have stung Haag.

"What I said in my comments to TASS represent another point of view in Germany, but it is held by many here," he said in remarks published by the Russian news agency on October 10.

Haag also accused Khmelnitsky -- the author of numerous history books -- of falsely posing as a historian.


Murders and Gang Rapes: Moscow Spins OSCE Probe Into Ukraine 'Mass Graves'

The OSCE says it has no record of having any link with Einars Graudins (second from right).

Claire Bigg

Russian state media are abuzz with accusations of murder and gang-rape levelled against government forces in eastern Ukraine by a purported Western monitor.

The charges stem from Einars Graudins, a Latvian political activist who, according to Russian media reports, is part of a team of international monitors dispatched to eastern Ukraine by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

The "OSCE expert" is also widely quoted as claiming that hundreds of bodies have been exhumed from mass graves in the Donetsk region.

The problem is, Graudins has never worked for the OSCE.

"We are currently checking the identity of this person, but as far as I know at this moment he is not a member of the special monitoring mission in Ukraine," OSCE deputy spokesperson Natacha Rajakovic told RFE/RL. "We have no record and we certainly couldn't confirm any such statements."

The OSCE's chapter in Ukraine later confirmed that he has "no link whatsoever" to the OSCE.

Graudins did visit the grave sites, but only as a group of eight human rights experts from different European countries who accompanied the regular OSCE monitors.

Known for his pro-Russian and anti-American views – his Twitter account describes him as an anti-globalist and a theoretician of Marxism -- Graudins makes no secret of his sympathy for the separatists rebels.

This has not prevented Russian media from misrepresenting his comments, initially published on September 30 in the "Rossiiskaya Gazeta" daily, the Russian government's official newspaper.

The RIA Novosti agency, for instance, ran the headline "OSCE Expert: About 400 Bodies Found in Gravesites Near Donetsk."

The Russian media has been portraying the alleged mass graves as evidence of "war crimes."

Separatist leaders themselves have confirmed the discovery of only 9 bodies in the alleged mass graves.

A RIA Novosti report claiming that an OSCE monitor had found a mass grave with hundreds of bodies that are supposedly evidence of "war crimes" by Kyiv-backed forces.
A RIA Novosti report claiming that an OSCE monitor had found a mass grave with hundreds of bodies that are supposedly evidence of "war crimes" by Kyiv-backed forces.

In fact, what Graudins told "Rossiiskaya Gazeta" is that there are currently about 400 unidentified bodies in the morgues of Donetsk, without specifying their provenance, and that "their number will grow as the exhumations are conducted at the discovered graves."

"Rossiiskaya Gazeta" itself did not balk at putting its own spin on the interview.

The 400 bodies, it said in introductory remarks, belonged to "civilians and executed insurgents." Again, Graudins makes no such claim.

According to Graudins, the international delegation in which he was embedded visited two alleged mass graves, one in the village of Nizhnyaya Krynka, the other at a mine near the village of Kommunar.

The bodies, he is quoted as saying, "lie under a thin layer of earth."

"You can see," he adds, "that the bodies of those killed were hastily thrown into the pit and covered with earth."

Graudins then appears to contradict himself by stating that the bodies were removed prior to the group's arrival due to their "advanced stage of decomposition."

In Nizhyaya Krynka, too, he is unable to provide any evidence that the site ever hosted a mass grave.

He only mentions the "unbearable smell," which, he argues, is proof that "not all bodies have been taken out of the ground."

According to him, the delegation was invited to witness the exhumation process. 

Rather implausibly for international monitors investigating allegations of mass graves, the team supposedly declined due to what Graudins describes as time constraints.

"You have to understand the situation there is difficult," he adds. "Ukrainian snipers operate in this area."

Graudins then launches into an emotional account of the ordeal allegedly suffered by local residents at the hands of Ukrainian troops. 

"The people of Donbas are still screaming in terror," he says, relating reports that government troops routinely murder innocent civilians "for no reason."

In Nizhyaya Krynka, he claims, the villagers accuse fighters from the pro-Ukrainian "Azov" and "Donbas" battalion of gang-raping every single local woman, including underage girls and elderly women.

"The grief experienced by these women have rendered me speechless," he is quoted as saying.

In a related development illustrating what has been widely denounced as a disinformation campaign in the Russian media, BBC reported that a Russian state television channel is using photos of victims of the MH17 Malaysia Airlines disaster to illustrate its own reports on "mass graves" in eastern Ukraine.


A 'Ukrainian Missile' Or A Failed Russian Space Launch?

An unmanned Russian Proton-M booster rocket crashes after veering off course after lift-off, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on July 2, 2013.

Backers of pro-Russian separatists have recently accused Ukraine's armed forces of using powerful ballistic missiles against civilian populations in eastern Ukraine.

But Ukraine's National Security and Defense Council (NSDC) says it can prove that a report on a TV station run by Russia's Defense Ministry, which claimed to show a Tochka-U missile strike, was actually old footage of a failed Russian Proton-M satellite launch in Kazakhstan.

The August 20 report on Zvezda, the Russian channel, shows footage it claims was shot in eastern Ukraine.

"The Ukrainian Army struck Makiyivka with a Tochka-U rocket," causing "destruction to the city," says the TV host as video of a flying object falling and exploding just beyond a high-rise plays in the background. 

 

In the video, the force of the explosion is so powerful that the windows in the apartment of the person filming shatter shortly after impact.

But the NSDC has produced a video rebuttal, which it says shows clearly that the Zvezda material is actually taken from the failed July 2013 launch in Kazakhstan of a $200 million Russian Proton-M rocket. 

Comparing it with user-generated video of the 2013 crash, the NSDC highlights both the trajectory and the outline of the cloud of smoke following the explosion, proving, it says, that the events are the same. 

Ukraine's National Security and Defense Council says a video claiming to show a Ukrainian Tochka-U rocket (left) is actually from a failed Russian Proton-M launch (right).
Ukraine's National Security and Defense Council says a video claiming to show a Ukrainian Tochka-U rocket (left) is actually from a failed Russian Proton-M launch (right).

While RFE/RL cannot independently confirm the NSDC video, Zvezda has taken a photo of the explosion off its website and Russia's state-run RT television channel, which frequently carries content favorable to pro-Russian separatists, itself says the video is of the Proton-M rocket failure. 

-- RFE/RL's Ukrainian Service, with contribution by Glenn Kates


Video How Russian State TV Linked Satanists To Ukraine's Leadership

According to a state-run Russian broadcaster, Ukrainian Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk (right) and parliament speaker Oleksandr Turchynov are striving to erode the standing of the Russian Orthodox Church in Ukraine.

What do Ukrainian Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk and parliament speaker Oleksandr Turchynov have in common with members of a satanic religious sect based in central Ukraine?

They are all part of a broad movement to destroy the Russian Orthodox Church, according to Russia's leading state-run broadcaster. 

The August 17 report on Rossia 24 begins with news that a devil-worshipping religious sect has received permission from local authorities to build a church, focusing on footage of a lamb that is apparently about to be slaughtered in a ritual sacrifice.

But to reporter Nikolai Sokolov, the wooly ruminant is only the furriest of the many potential victims of the new pro-European Ukraine, which, he says, "is now an ideal laboratory for [religious] sects." 

And the trouble, he says, starts at the top.

"Where Kyiv Rus was born the Russian Orthodox Church is losing numbers," he says, referring to the medieval Slavic state that laid the Orthodox foundations for modern-day Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. "Many politicians are of different religions. Oleksandr Turchynov, for instance, combines his activities in the parliament with meetings of Baptists. To them he isn't just a parishioner, but a spiritual teacher."

There are an estimated 100 million Baptist community members worldwide, but they make up less than 1 percent of Ukraine's population. 

But Turchynov is not the only non-Orthodox believer in power, says Sokolov. 

Yatsenyuk is something that may be even worse: "a follower of Scientology," the controversial religious group that Russia has refused to recognize. 

Except he's not. Despite popular online rumors that he is either a Scientologist or Jewish, Yatsenyuk identifies himself as a Ukrainian Greek Catholic -- a church that makes up 14 percent of Ukraine's population. 

But perhaps for the purposes of the report it's a difference without a distinction. 

Russian officials and media figures opposed to the government in Kyiv have frequently padded their rhetoric with nationalistic calls to protect ethnic Russians and their Russian Orthodox beliefs, wherever threats may arise.

And some actions by pro-Russian separatists appear to be at least indirectly tied to these religious calls. 

In June, a group of local residents and armed Russian Cossacks in Crimea, which was annexed by Russia in March, ransacked a Ukrainian Orthodox Church.

And earlier this summer, four leaders of a Protestant church in Slovyansk -- then controlled by separatists -- were kidnapped from a service and killed some 16 hours later. 

-- Anna Shamanska with contributions from Glenn Kates


Russian 'Humanitarian Aid': What We Know And Don't Know So Far

A screen capture of a Russian convoy of trucks that Moscow says is carrying humanitarian aid for Ukraine sets off from near the Russian capital on August 12.

Glenn Kates

The Kremlin's August 11 announcement that it would be sending "humanitarian aid" to Ukraine has set off a dizzying round of geopolitical telephone.

And as a Russian convoy with 280 trucks rumbled from Moscow toward the border with Ukraine, the flurry of statements had done little to clarify what Ukraine and Russia, along with Western leaders and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), had actually agreed to.

Here's what we know so far:

Agreement On Aid

Following the statement on Russian President Vladimir Putin's website, which claimed that the Russian convoy would be sent in collaboration with the Red Cross, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said Ukraine had agreed to "all details."

After a phone call with U.S. President Barack Obama, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko announced on his website that he had indeed agreed to an international humanitarian mission. The operation, which he claimed was his own initiative, was to be led by the Red Cross and would include cooperation from the European Union, Germany, and Russia. (While the statement remains on the website, the wording listing partner countries had disappeared.)

The Red Cross, for its part, said there was "agreement by all sides that the ICRC will be allowed to deliver the aid with due respect for its fundamental working principles of neutrality, impartiality, and independence." It also stipulated that all Russian humanitarian assistance would need to be handed over to the Red Cross itself.

Coordinated Aid?

But as the Russian fleet moved toward Ukraine, it had become apparent that despite the communiques less than 12 hours earlier, there had been little coordination.

The Red Cross told RFE/RL that the aid convoy was not theirs and they did not know what was in it.

"We don't yet know entirely what's in it. We are waiting to clarify some practical details before moving forward with this aid convoy," Ewan Watson, a spokesman for the Red Cross, told RFE/RL. "At the moment it is not an International Red Cross convoy, inasmuch as we haven't had sight of the material, we haven't had certain information regarding the content, and the volume of aid that it contains." He said that the ICRC was not informed by the Russians that it had left until after it departed.

Fears Of A Russian incursion

The statements on aid come against the backdrop of increasing fears over a potential full-scale Russian invasion of Ukraine. There are as many as 20,000 Russian military personnel on Ukraine's border, and some have speculated that Moscow would use "humanitarian intervention" as a pretext for its incursion.

Shortly before Moscow's August 11 announcement, NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said there was "high probability" that Russia would take unilateral military action "under the guise of a humanitarian operation." 

It is with this in mind that Western statements -- including those from the European Union and United States stressed the need for any aid operation to be led by the Red Cross (and not Russia).

Painted White Trucks

The first pictures of Russia's convoy, which appeared in Russian state media early on August 12, did little to allay the fears.

Russian Aid Convoy Sets Off For Ukrainei
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August 12, 2014
A Russian convoy of 280 trucks carrying humanitarian aid left for Ukraine on August 12. Russia said the aid consisted of food, medicine, medical equipment, sleeping bags, and portable power generators. (Reuters)

Heading toward Luhansk from just outside Moscow, Russian authorities said the 280 trucks carrying 2,000 tons of food, medicine, medical equipment, sleeping bags, and power generators would arrive in the embattled eastern Ukrainian region of Luhansk by the morning of August 13.

While Russian news agencies reported that the trucks were coming from Russia's Emergency Situations Ministry, Russian bloggers quickly pointed out that the automobiles appeared to be repainted versions of green Russian military trucks.

A video uploaded to YouTube on August 10 appeared to show similar trucks surrounded by Russian soldiers -- some were green, while others appeared to have a fresh coat of white paint. And the "Kyiv Post" reported that some Russian soldiers had apparently posted messages on social media about repainting and stocking trucks with aid.

Where Is The Aid Headed And Who's Taking It There?

Ostensibly, the supplies are headed to territories in the Ukrainian region of Luhansk that since April have been occupied by armed pro-Russian separatists.

Amid heavy fighting between separatists and Kyiv's armed forces -- and with both sides accused of indiscriminate shelling -- the southeastern part of the region, which includes its largest city, Luhansk, has been almost completely cut off.

According to the Red Cross, thousands are without access to water, electricity, or medicine.

But with strong evidence that Russia has provided arms and support to separatists, Kyiv would be unlikely to allow an uncoordinated convoy of Russian trucks to enter the region -- even if the vehicles were carrying only aid. 

At least three high-ranking Ukrainian officials, apparently alarmed by the fast-paced developments on the Russian side, have warned that the convoy will not be allowed to pass through Ukraine's borders.

Valeriy Chaliy, Poroshenko's chief of staff, told news media that Ukraine was "not considering" giving the trucks access to Ukrainian territory and a Ukrainian military spokesman said the Red Cross would need a week to determine Luhansk's needs.

Russia, so far, has dismissed those concerns.

A Foreign Ministry statement, which called Ukrainian concerns "puzzling," said the convoy would enter Ukraine at the Belgorod-Kharkiv crossing "under the auspices of the International Committee of the Red Cross." 

Earlier, a spokesperson for Russia's Emergency Ministry had reportedly told BBC that the convoy had no plans to enter Ukraine.

With additional reporting by Luke Johnson

Social-Media Posts Belie Russian Denials About Ukraine Involvement

Glenn Kates

Russia has sought to maintain plausible deniability about its involvement in the conflict in Ukraine's east.

Granted, separatist leaders like Igor Girkin and Igor Bezler are Russian citizens with alleged pasts in Russia's security services, but Moscow says they came to Ukraine on their own accord.

And although some high-powered weapons have been traced back to Russia, the Kremlin has argued -- albeit not particularly convincingly -- that any weapons in separatist hands were taken from the Ukrainian side.

But some Russian military personnel may not have gotten the memo.

Aleksandr Sotkin, a 24-year-old Russian soldier who BuzzFeed first reported had been posting updates apparently from inside Ukraine, is the most recent culprit in the series of what appear to be social-media snafus.

"Night shift..working up a sweat," says this post from June 30, apparently posted inside Ukraine in the town of Krasna Talivka, 3 kilometers from the border with Russia.

According to an Instagram map, Sokin posted two of his photos from within Ukraine:

Internet sleuths were also able to make screen captures of posts apparently belonging to other soldiers before they managed to close their social-media accounts.

Mikhail Chuganov allegedly uploaded photos of military trucks carrying Grad rockets toward Ukraine's border on Vkontakte, Russia's most popular social-networking site. His account has since been deleted.

And in late July, a soldier named Vadim Grigoryev posted photos of launchers and artillery near the border with Ukraine. 

"We battered Ukraine all night," he allegedly wrote:

After deleting his account, Grigoryev appeared on Russia's state-run Rossia-24 TV channel and claimed his profile had been hacked. 

His defense, though, had some holes.

He first told the interviewer he hadn't heard about the controversy until contacted by the TV channel. But later in the interview, Grigoryev said he had called his family members, who then deleted his account. He also claimed his phone was incapable of posting the photos, which he said had been taken over a month ago -- a claim that seems to suggest the photos do indeed exist.

Some Russian State Duma deputies appear to be at least tacitly acknowledging the veracity of the photos.

A Communist Party deputy is reportedly preparing legislation that would ban soldiers from posting photos and videos on social networks that revealed military equipment or positions.


Few Want To Take Responsibility As Civilian Casualties Add Up In Ukraine War

Local residents pass the covered body of an apparent civilian casualty in the village of Stanitsa Luhanskaya, in the eastern industrial province of Luhansk, on July 2.

Glenn Kates

The war in Ukraine's east has had its share of horrific images, but one recently stood out for its poetic cruelty.

A young mother in jeans shorts and a tanktop lay splayed on the grass with her leg obliterated -- dead, she continued to cling to her lifeless infant (Warning: Graphic image).

As international attention focuses on the Malaysia Airlines crash investigation and increased sanctions against Russia -- amid fighting in Gaza and Iraq and other world crises -- Ukrainian and pro-Russian partisans are bitterly blaming each other for scenes like this as the war in Ukraine appears to be growing more violent.

Less than a week after Human Rights Watch (HRW) released a report accusing Kyiv of using unguided Grad rockets in civilian areas, videos continue to show them falling in separatist-controlled cities like Horlivka, seemingly arbitrarily.

At least 22 civilians reportedly died in shelling on July 29 alone, as Kyiv appeared to be closing in on separatist positions.

Ukrainian officials, who have denied using Grads in populated areas despite Human Rights Watch's charge that artillery has come from Ukrainian army positions, have claimed the deadly attacks are provocations from Russia-backed separatists hoping to gain public sympathy.

And what people believe often appears to depend on their political positions.

When videos and photos appeared online of the mother and child, said to have been killed in Horlivka, reaction was swift.

InfoResist, a pro-Kyiv site, referring to the separatists, said, "Terrorist Grads kill a young mother with her child in her hands."

"Open your eyes, blind Europe," said a meme posted by a pro-Russian supporter who blamed the Ukrainian army for the deaths. (Warning: Graphic image)

A UN report released on July 28 said more than 1,000 civilians had been killed since the conflict began in earnest in April when armed pro-Russian separatists began occupying cities in the eastern regions of Donetsk and Luhansk.

Rights groups, who say separatists also have Grads, have accused them of crimes including torture, kidnapping, and execution. Ukrainian authorities discovered a mass grave with at least eight bodies in Slovyansk, an area that was until recently controlled by separatists.

And there is evidence that Moscow has supplied rebels with increasingly sophisticated weaponry, including the Buk missile launcher that has been blamed for downing the Malaysian airliner with 298 passengers and crew on July 17.

But as Kyiv appears to be gaining ground against the rebels, some supporters appear unwilling to acknowledge the civilian cost of the advance.

Ukrainian National Security and Defense Council spokesman Andriy Lysenko stated categorically to reporters on July 29 that "Ukrainian troops do not use artillery and aviation while fighting in cities."

"Ukrainian troops will recapture the city of Donetsk in order to save its infrastructure," Lysenko added. "But the primary goal is to save the lives of people -- peaceful civilians -- who remain there. They are suffering at the moment from being shelled by terrorists."

And an anchor for Hromadske TV, an independent Kyiv-based Internet TV site that bills itself as an "objective and unbiased" information source, cut off an interview with a well-regarded researcher in the Russia office of Human Rights Watch.

The researcher, Tanya Lokshina, had insisted on speaking about civilian casualties but refused to blame Russia outright for the conflict, despite repeated demands from the anchor, Daniil Yanevskyy.

Referring to the interview on Facebook, Yanevskyy asked users to "like" his post if they supported the idea that having a guest on the air who "demeaned the soldiers who have shed blood in eastern Ukraine" was "unacceptable."

It has over 2,500 likes as of this writing.


British Aviation Expert Says Russian MH17 Claims Highly Unlikely

Russian defense officials sit in front of a map of air-defense locations in the area of Donetsk during a briefing by Russian Lieutenant General Andrei Kartopolov and Lieutenant General Igor Makushev in Moscow on July 21 to present Moscow's view of the MH17 downing.

Glenn Kates

According to a British aviation expert, Russian charges that a Ukrainian Su-25 fighter jet may have shot down Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 are "fairly incredible."

"Loaded with missiles and bombs, [the Su-25's] maximum altitude is five kilometers," says David Gleave, an aviation and safety researcher at Loughborough University. "We know that MH17 was flying at 10 kilometers high."

At a July 21 press conference --  held amid mounting evidence that MH17 had been shot down by a Buk missile fired by pro-Russian separatists -- members of Russia's general staff claimed that an Su-25 with air-to-air missiles had been detected within three to five kilometers of the doomed plane. 

Gleave, a former accident investigator, says it is conceivable, although extremely unlikely, that the alleged fighter jet could have attempted a maneuver in which it nose-dived and then flipped skyward to shoot the missile from more than three kilometers below the Malaysian airliner.

Moscow had claimed that the Su-25 was flying at the same altitude as Flight 17.

Stranger about the Russian claims, though, is that Ukraine does have Su-27 fighter jets in its arsenal -- a series that would have been capable of flying at altitude with MH17.

"[For the Russians to say] that [the Ukrainians] would use the Frogfoot" -- NATO's term for the Su-25 -- "is a particularly bizarre choice of airplane because it's purposely designed to fly at very low levels and be agile down there," Gleave said.

On July 22, the U.S. government released a satellite photo that it said showed the trajectory of the Buk missile pro-Russian separatists allegedly fired from the ground to shoot down MH17.

Gleave says that pictures he has seen from the crash site -- which show indents on the exterior of the plane -- appear to indicate a strike from a missile.


Video The 'Well-Known Art Gallery' In Prague Being Hailed By Russian State TV

One of the most famous art galleries in Prague?

Viewers of Russian state TV were introduced this week to a revealing photo exhibit being held at "one of the most famous art galleries in Prague."

Organizers are describing the exhibit as an "attempt to overcome the conspiracy of European media silence on what is happening in Ukraine," according to Rossia-24.

But the televised reports, also being aired on Russia's Channel 5, conspicuously leave out the name of the "well-known" Prague art gallery displaying a collection of photos said to have been taken in the aftermath of a fire at Odesa's trade-union building that killed over 40 supporters of pro-Russian separatists.

It is certainly conceivable that one of Prague's more eminent spaces -- the Leica Gallery, New Town Hall, or Prague House, for instance -- would be interested in hosting an exhibit on the horrific May 2 fire, sparked after earlier clashes between pro-Ukrainian and pro-Russian protesters in which gunfire reportedly killed at least four on the pro-Kyiv side.

But none of them is. Turns out, the display is in an otherwise nondescript fifth-floor hallway in the building housing the Czech communist party, officially called the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia.

During a midday visit by RFE/RL two days after the show's opening, the hall was empty aside from two elderly members of the communist-linked "Czech Borderlands Club" lounging in armchairs lining the walls. 

The exhibit consists of some 20 pixelated photos collected from the Internet, printed on computer paper and glued onto the backs of glass frames. 

Many of the gruesome pictures have appeared widely online.

Monika Horeni, an editor at "Halo noviny," the Czech communist party's news arm and an organizer for the show, says she was asked to display the photos by a Ukrainian who opposes the government in Kyiv. 

Speaking to RFE/RL, the 48-year-old, wearing a "Remember Odesa, Stop Fascism" pin, appeared to parallel Russian state media, which has frequently used misinformation to cast Ukraine's post-Euromaidan leadership as an "illegal junta" influenced by fascism.

"Czech residents don't get objective information from Czech media, unfortunately," Horeni said, speaking Russian. "But we try to show it, because we are convinced that in Ukraine bad things are happening. The current authorities are putschists and many of them didn't come to power democratically. "

Horeni said 20 to 30 people came to the opening in early July, but admitted visitors have since been sparse.

-- Glenn Kates


Video Russian State TV Adds Its Own Twist To RFE/RL Video

RFE/RL's Ukrainian Service filmed the disgruntled soldier last week.

Russian state-television is suddenly broadcasting RFE/RL videos -- albeit unattributed. 

On June 19, Rossia 24 broadcast segments of two separate videos shot in eastern Ukraine by RFE/RL's Ukrainian Service. Contrasting the state broadcaster's angle with the on-the-ground reporting by our reporters provides a useful case study in how a video's context can be shifted to represent one particular point of view. 

Video 1: The Disgruntled Soldier

The first video features a Ukrainian national guardsman who is brutal in his criticism of Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko. 

"Comrade Poroshenko, please establish order if you're a real president and a man of your word," he said. "All of us are beginning to think that we're being used as cannon fodder."

He went on to complain about a lack of apparent strategy, backup support, and food rations.

Rossia 24 aired these complaints, including a threat to turn around and go to Kyiv, here.  

The channel also claimed, wrongly, that the video was posted on the Internet by members of the Ukrainian National Guard. 

What Rossia 24 omits, however, is the soldier's account of why he is in the east in the first place. 

Referring to armed separatists who have been engaged in fighting with Ukraine's military forces since occupying buildings in April, the soldier appealed to Poroshenko to "bring together qualified, reasonable army professionals who can defeat the [separatist] monster that has emerged here."

He added that "We are defending our country absolutely for free." 
 
Ukrainian National Guard Soldier: 'We're Used As Cannon Fodder'i
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A member of Ukraine's National Guard has complained about a lack of proper military planning as troops fight the separatist insurgency in the country's east. The unidentified soldier, whose voice has been altered for this video, pleaded with the government to provide more professional support for Ukrainian military operations. (RFE/RL's Ukrainian Service)


So, Rossia -- a channel that has provided a steady flow of coverage in support of the separatist cause -- is content to air the grievances toward Kyiv of a disgruntled Ukrainian volunteer without also showing how he feels about pro-Russian militiamen. 

Video 2: Slovyansk Shelling

In the aftermath of two Rossia 24 journalists being killed earlier this week when Ukrainian troops attacked a separatist checkpoint in Luhansk, Rossia 24 used another RFE/RL video -- of Ukrainian National Guardsmen shelling in a Slovyansk suburb --  to imply that the deaths may not have been a mistake made in the fog of war. 

"They take aim carefully, choosing their targets," a Rossia 24 reporter said over the footage of the shelling. "Fighters of the National Guard are performing an execution in a suburb of Slovyansk. They brag that they can hit a person from several kilometers away. But after the demise of our colleagues, many said Ukrainian soldiers didn't see who they were firing at."

The Rossia 24 report then used audio from the RFE/RL Ukrainian Service report:

"Is it possible to hit [the target] from such a distance?" the RFE/RL journalist asks.

"It is possible," the soldier answers. "With good aim, it's possible to hit the target." 
 

The Rossia 24 version of the video, however, omits the claim by the same soldier -- included in the original RFE/RL video -- that civilians had left the village they were shelling two to three weeks ago.
 

RFE/RL cannot independently confirm the soldier's claim.  

-- RFE/RL's Ukrainian Service/Glenn Kates

Russian Media Claims About State Spokeswoman Appear To Be Fantasy

Jen Psaki

An article about a U.S. State Department spokeswoman in the official newspaper of the Russian government appears to be completely made up. 

On June 20, "Rossiiskaya gazeta" reported that Jen Psaki had rejected claims that Ukrainians were fleeing to Russia's southern Rostov region. 

According to the newspaper, AP's diplomatic correspondent, Matthew Lee, then asked her to explain "all the women and children arriving in Russia's regions." 

"It's tourists" who come for Rostov's "beautiful mountains and curative air" she reportedly responded "without hesitation." 

The first problem with the statement? Rostov is generally flat, with no land more than 253 meters above sea level. 

The second problem? The conversation apparently never took place.

Lee denied it on Twitter today.
 


And there was no similar conversation found in a search of State Department transcripts. 

But the phantom back-and-forth between him and Psaki, which was apparently first reported on a talk show on Russia's state-run First Channel, had already quickly spread in Russian media. A Russian-language Google News search for mentions of Psaki and Rostov on June 20 returned over 120 results. 
 


"Psaki has once again demonstrated her incompetence," tweeted LifeNews, an outlet believed to have ties to Russia's security services. "She called Ukrainian refugees tourists." 
 


Psaki has been in the crosshairs of Russian media and supporters of the Kremlin since early May, when, in explaining Washington's refusal to recognize separatist referendum votes in eastern Ukraine, she mentioned carousel voting -- an election rigging method by which voters are bussed around to cast ballots in multiple polling stations.   

Lee, the AP correspondent, followed up by asking her to explain the term and Psaki awkwardly admitted that she was not "familiar with it." 

Shortly after, Dmitry Kiselyov, the head of Russia's propaganda arm, Russia Today, introduced "Psaking," a new word based on the incident. 

"“People say [Psaking] when someone makes a dogmatic statement about something they don’t understand, mixes facts up, and then doesn’t apologize," he said. 

As of writing "Rossiiskaya gazeta" had not yet issued a correction. 

-- Glenn Kates


Watch A Russian News Anchor's Reaction When He Hears A Surprising Opinion

RBK anchor Yury Tamantsev gets an answer he doesn't expect on Russian TV.

RBK is a Russian business news agency not known for the sort of over-the-top, pro-Kremlin coverage of state television channels. It is owned by a group led by Russian billionaire and Brooklyn Nets owner Mikhail Prokhorov.
 
Still, over the course of a five-minute interview with the chairman of the Independent Association of Ukrainian Miners, the host of an RBK television program seemed to morph from reserved to agitated to angry.
 
The video below is in Russian, but even if you don't speak the language, the change of tone is obvious.

WATCH: Mykhaylo Volinets interviewed by RBK TV

 The guest, Mykhaylo Volinets, begins by claiming that, over the weekend, "men in masks with automatic weapons" had occupied a Donetsk mine and taken its general director prisoner.
 
"The majority of the Donetsk miners don't support the actions of [pro-Russian] separatists," he continues. "But many -- especially Russia -- are trying to destabilize the country's east. If it weren't for the actions of Russia to destabilize the situation we could peacefully resolve it. "
 
The anchor, Yury Tamantsev, now with his arms crossed, takes a long breath. He claims that a week ago he had seen images of miners protesting against the Ukrainian military operation in the region. It's hard to believe, he says, that they had changed their mind. 
 
"There are different opinions," says Volinets, who goes on to argue that a range of complex measures should be taken to staunch the unrest, including negotiations and an end to violence. Nonetheless, he concludes, it's impossible as long as Russian arms are illegally crossing into Ukraine.
 
Now Tamantsev is agitated. He answers with a sentence that is marvelous for its unintentional irony.
 
"Did you see [the arms] yourself?" he asks. "You are just broadcasting the opinion of Ukrainian television now. For what?"
 
Volinets begins to speak and the host cuts him off.
 
"You said there are different opinions, but your opinion is also just one out of many, do you agree?"
 
Volinets again brings up weapons, as the host's rage builds.
 
"Where did you see them, on Ukrainian TV? Come on, let's talk about what we know is fact," he says, adding that there was no way that the miners have suddenly all turned against the separatists. 
 
"I don't want to fault you, I'm just going over the facts on the ground," Volinets answers. 

"You're not incriminating me in particular, but an entire country in something you can't concretely prove."
 
Volinets tries to speak again, but by now the exasperated host has had enough. He ends the discussion.

-- Glenn Kates

How To Project A Fringe Website Onto 'American Media'

"American Media: Obama Supports State Terror In Eastern Ukraine"

As much as it dismisses the West, Russian media sometimes appears obsessed with Western coverage of the issues that affect Russia -- particularly when that coverage even peripherally supports Moscow's message.

When CNN appeared to implicate Kyiv in a blast at the Luhansk administration building last week, Russia's two main state-controlled channels ran stories on the CNN report, as did the state-run RIA Novosti news agency and the Kremlin's international RT network.

In May, when "The Guardian" ran a controversial (and widely debunked) opinion piece by John Pilger that claimed the United States and the West had unleashed "fascist forces" on Ukraine, virtually all major Russian media provided coverage.

But what should Russian media do if the English-language source criticizing the West is neither "The Guardian" or CNN?

What if there's a picture-perfect, hyperbolic, red-meat headline -- in this case, "Obama Backs State Terror Against Eastern Ukraine" -- but the publication running the piece is called the "World Socialist Web Site"?

What if that website is sponsored by the International Committee of the Fourth International, which is apparently a group devoted to implementing the teachings of Leon Trotsky. 

In other words, what should Russian media do when it wants to quote a fringe source but give it mainstream credibility?

Apparently it can follow the example of "Vzglyad," a website founded by Konstantin Rykov, a pro-Kremlin media entrepreneur. It can bury the source, while projecting its opinion on American media in general.

Here is "Vzglyad's" headline: "American Media: Obama Supports State Terror In Eastern Ukraine."

The article never mentions the "World Socialist Web Site," although it does link to "Axis of Logic," another fringe website that republished the original opinion piece.

A tweet by Rykov, with just the headline, has been retweeted 90 times as of this writing:

According to Alexa.com, a company that provides web-traffic data, "Vzglyad" ranks 82nd in visits and page views in Russia. The "World Socialist Web Site" ranks No. 42,430 in the United States.

Correction: This post originally stated that Alexa did not provide a U.S. ranking for the "World Socialist Web Site." In fact, it does, as noted in the comments. 

-- Glenn Kates

Video Despite Denials, All Evidence For Deadly Explosion Points To Kyiv

Firefighters arrive at the state administration building after the explosion in Luhansk on June 2.

On June 2 an explosion ripped through the Luhansk state administration building.

Before anyone knew what had happened, graphic video from the scene began to appear online. A dazed woman with her legs blown off and seemingly near death stared blankly into a camera amid rubble and lifeless bodies.

Just as soon, rumors began to spread about what had taken place.

As is happening more and more frequently, both the pro-Russian and pro-Ukrainian sides were quick to latch onto stories that fit comfortably into their narrative of events on the ground.

Separatist supporters reported almost immediately that the attack came from a Ukrainian fighter jet.

From Ukrainian officials, the denials were swift. "The most likely cause of the explosion was careless and inept handling of small arms and explosives," Oleksandr Dmytrashevskyy, a Ukrainian military spokesman, told RFE/RL's Ukrainian Service.

Andriy Senchenko, deputy chief of staff for acting President Oleksandr Turchynov, declared that a heat-seeking missile fired by pro-Russian separatists had mistakenly targeted an air-conditioning unit on the fourth floor of the administration building.

Video from the scene showed a blown-out fourth-floor window with billowing smoke:
Luhansk Explosion Leaves Casualties, Damagei
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Video from the eastern Ukrainian city of Luhansk shows men trying to move a body amid scattered debris outside the damaged regional administration building after an explosion there. The administration building is under the control of the leaders of the separatist self-proclaimed "Luhansk People's Republic." The footage was provided to Reuters by ANNA News.

Pro-Ukrainian supporters were quick to run with the story:

Despite the Ukrainian denials, the evidence from observers and journalists on the ground overwhelmingly points to a strike from a Ukrainian aircraft.

A June 3 report from the special monitoring mission of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) said: 
 
"Based on the SMM's limited observation these strikes were the result of non-guided rockets shot from an aircraft. The number of casualties is unknown."

The OSCE did not immediately reply to a request for further information.

A CNN investigation found "clear evidence" that the detonations came from the air:
 
"But a CNN investigation in Luhansk has found clear evidence that whatever detonations hit the building and the adjoining park came from the air. The tops of trees were splintered, and a series of small craters -- about a dozen -- had been blasted in a straight line, starting in the park and reaching the walls of the building, blowing out many of its windows and spraying the area with jagged shrapnel. That's what appears to have killed most of the victims and injured 20 more.

"The pattern of the craters clearly indicated some sort of strafing, according to a munitions expert at the scene with CNN. Their size suggested 30-millimeter ordnance, he said, which is standard equipment on the Su-25, a ground-attack fighter, and the Su-27 -- both combat aircraft operated by Ukraine."

Anna Nemtsova, a reporter for the "Daily Beast," tweeted this from the scene on June 3:

In a dispatch from the scene, Nemtsova also reported seeing 21 craters.

The Ukrainian military -- which has been in a pitched battle for two days against separatists who launched an attack on a border outpost in the region -- has used fighter jets to support its mission in Luhansk.

But it still has not claimed responsibility for the attack on the state administration building, where reports say eight unarmed civilians died.

And the dissembling has become a useful propaganda tool for the Russian side, while apparently hardening public opinion in Luhansk.

A photo making the rounds on Twitter, along with horrific images from the scene, shows the second World Trade Center building being hit on 9/11. The caption says, "air conditioner explosion."

Alex Luhn, a "Guardian" reporter, posted this image of Ukraine's president-elect, who met with U.S. President Obama on June 4 and is due to be sworn in on June 7:

And on a nationally televised Russian talk show hosted by Arkady Mamontov -- a well-known host who has provided a steady stream of sensationalist propaganda about  Ukraine -- commentators said the actions proved the separatists were the last defense against "fascism and American aggression."

All this raises a more troubling question for Kyiv. As it ramps up its offensive against pro-Russian separatists, there are likely to be more civilian casualties -- particularly as air power plays a greater role. If it accepts this, is it also prepared to talk honestly about the consequences of war?

-- Glenn Kates

LifeNews Blames Right Sector, Conscripts For Luhansk Border Fighting

Pro-Russia militants fire from a residential building at Ukrainian border guards defending the Federal Border Headquarters in Luhansk on June 2.

Early morning on June 2, armed insurgents attacked a border-guard checkpoint in the Luhansk region of southeastern Ukraine.
 
According to an unconfirmed account by Ukraine's border-guard service, as many as 400 rebels participated in the operation.
 
Rebel fighters said Ukrainian servicemen had rejected an offer for safe passage if they agreed to abandon their posts.
 
Here is video of the attack, provided by the Ukrainian Border Guard Service:

 
With even rebel fighters admitting an attempt to seize the border-guard outpost, it seems clear that an incursion was initiated by insurgents.
 
But here's how LifeNews -- an Internet video service said to have ties to Russia's security services and criticized as a Kremlin mouthpiece -- frames the battle:

 
"The [Ukrainian] National Guard has opened fire on a southern region of a city in Luhansk," says an anchor for the news portal. "They are using not just small arms but also artillery."
 
She then brings in Aleksei Repin, a correspondent who is reporting from an apartment block apparently located near the fighting.
 
"When did the [Ukrainian] special forces begin their attack and what's happening now?" the anchor asks.
 
Amid the sound of gunfire, Repin explains: "Two-hundred meters from here is the military garrison of the Ukrainian border guards. There are 200 fighters -- including contractors, conscripts, and national guardsmen. We also have information that Right Sector is there as well."
 
Right Sector, an ultranationalist Ukrainian group, has become the go-to bogeyman for Russian authorities, who have accused Ukraine of promoting "fascism."
 
Claims of the group's omnipresence have become more difficult since its presidential candidate, Dmytro Yarosh, received just 1 percent of the vote on May 25.
 
Repin goes on to say that the ragtag Ukrainian group opened fire on the village at 4 a.m., using small arms, sniper weapons, and grenade launchers.
 
The camera then pans to people who appear to be local residents. The correspondent reports that they are running to work.
 
For the non-LifeNews version of what is happening in Luhansk, follow us here.
 
-- Glenn Kates

Video Russian TV Airs Old Footage In Fresh Ukraine Atrocity Claim

What appears to be the same footage was used in a report about a counterterrorist operation in the North Caucasus 18 months ago, and a killing in Ukraine recently.

Both the image and the implication were disturbing: a splayed corpse in an open field that Russian state television suggested was that of a civilian killed by Kyiv's forces to intimidate pro-Russian separatists in the eastern Donetsk region.

But the footage of the corpse featured in a May 16 newscast by state-owned broadcaster Rossia-1 appears to be identical to video material aired 18 months earlier in a report on an antiterrorist operation in Russia's restive North Caucasus region.

In its report on fighting between Ukrainian federal forces and militias backing the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic near the city of Slovyansk, Rossia-1 set up the footage of the corpse by saying that "every day peaceful civilians continue to die."

The body is then shown lying on the ground next to a handgun as the voiceover explains that the Ukrainian National Guard killed a man whom the armed separatists did not recognize as their own. The weapon was left at the scene to "send a message that an enemy was killed," Rossia-1 explained.

The report, however, shows what appears to be the exact same footage that its sister channel, Rossia-24, used in a November 18, 2012, report about a counterterrorist operation in Russia's North Caucasus Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria. 

Five militants were killed in that operation, Rossia-24 reported at the time.

In addition to showing what seems to be the same corpse, both the May 16 report from Ukraine and the 2012 report on the Kabardino-Balkaria operation include apparently identical footage of four armed, uniformed men surveying a grassy, fog-swept field.

The same raw footage was posted on YouTube the same day as the 2012 report on the counterterrorist operation, with Russia's National Antiterrorism Committee cited as the source.

In the May 16 report, Rossia-1 also interviewed a masked separatist holding an assault rifle who alleged that Ukrainian commanders operating in the area had executed their own soldiers who refused to obey "antipopular" orders.

Ukrainian and Western officials have accused the Russian media of engaging in naked propaganda to promote the Kremlin's message that the government in Kyiv is illegitimate and is backing "fascists" bent on persecuting ethnic Russians and Ukrainians who oppose its authority.

Last month, a nationally televised documentary in Russia suggested the Ukrainian government was building an internment camp for those "who speak out" against Ukrainian ultranationalists and for people whom "the current authorities in Kyiv call separatists."

Construction of the facility shown in the documentary, however, was begun in 2012 under then-Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych, who fled to Russia in late February following mass protests in Kyiv and other major Ukrainian cities.

The building is part of an EU-funded project to temporarily house illegal migrants.

-- Carl Schreck

About #UkraineUnspun

The information war is in full swing in the tense standoff between Ukraine and Russia. In an attempt to present a clearer picture, #UkraineUnspun will unravel information coming from Russian and Ukrainian media, politicians and activists. Written by Glenn Kates and contributors from RFE/RL.

Follow the hashtag #UkraineUnspun on Twitter and let us know what we should be covering -- or to weigh in on any of our stories. Or write us at webteam@rferl.org
 

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