GYUMRI, Armenia -- Russia's 102nd Military Base has long been a fixture in this northwestern Armenian city, the country's second-largest.
Founded in 1941, the facility survived the Soviet Union's demise before receiving its current name, along with a 25-year lease, in the mid-1990s.
But the brutal slaying of an entire family, blamed on a Russian soldier serving at the base, has shocked Gyumri residents and raised questions about the continued presence of Russian armed forces on Armenian soil.
Artur Koshtuyan still mourns for his seven slain relatives, the Avetisians, shot dead or fatally stabbed in their home late on January 12, 2015. This week he participated in a ceremony in Gyumri to honor the memory of the victims -- two grandparents, their son and daughter, a daughter-in-law, a 2-year-old girl, and a 6-month-old baby boy who died of his wounds in the hospital one week after the rampage.
But while he's heartbroken, Koshtuyan still believes the Russian base plays a vital role in protecting Gyumri against a potential attack from Turkey, whose border lies a mere 10-minute drive from the city.
"We need this base," Koshtuyan tells RFE/RL. "If the Russians left, the Turks would be able to enter the city any time. Our army is not strong enough to defend Armenia."
Many in Gyumri share this view.
"I can tell you now that if the Russian Army pulled out of here, there'd be a Turkish flag flying over this town within the week," says Samvel Melkonian, who is selling sheep on the road leading to the base. "Azerbaijan and Turkey would come at us from both sides."
Armenian sheep dealer Samvel Melkonian
The Avetisian case is not the first bloodshed tied to Russian soldiers in the city.
In 1999, two drunk Russian officers opened fire on shoppers at a local market, killing two people and wounding dozens more. And in 2013, two teenagers were killed by explosive devices left on the base's firing ground. Locals say that there were no warning signs and that the firing ground had not been cordoned off.
Gyumri residents have nonetheless been largely tolerant of the base, which, in addition to offering some degree of protection from Armenia's neighbors, provides employment for locals.
But some are running out of patience and want the Russian troops to pack their bags. "We don't need these soldiers," Vladimir, another relative of the Avetisians, says angrily. "Let them get the hell out of here."
One day after the family's shocking deaths, Armenian prosecutors had indicated that the Russian Constitution prohibited the extradition of Valery Permyakov -- the Russian soldier suspected of the crime -- to Armenia.
News that the presumed killer would not be handed over to Armenia sparked furious protests in the city, with some demonstrators denouncing Moscow's lingering dominance over the small Caucasus nation long after many other former Soviet countries shut down their Russian military bases.
Armenian activists had lobbied hard for Permyakov to be prosecuted locally, citing a 1997 bilateral agreement stipulating that Russian military personnel who commit crimes outside the territory of the 102nd Military Base fall under Armenian jurisdiction.
It took six months for Russia to agree to an Armenian trial of Permyakov, who has spent the past year in detention at the base.
He has reportedly confessed to the killings, although his motives remain unclear.
Permyakov has already been sentenced to 10 years in prison in a separate trial by a Russian military court on charges of stealing weapons from the base, deserting, and carrying the weapons in Gyumri.
The Armenian murder trial opened on December 18 in a small courtroom at the military base, but the hearings were adjourned until later this month after the court rejected requests for a change of venue and for Russian officers to leave the room.
A number of local residents now suspect Russian officers of concealing the truth about the Avetisians' deaths, possibly to cover up for other Russian military personnel.
"We think he wasn't alone there," Maryam, a relative of the victims, tells RFE/RL. "Maybe this Permyakov isn't even guilty. We want to know the truth, but how can we do that when he's in Russian detention and the judge consults with Russian officers?"
PHOTO GALLERY: Armenians Face Cold Reality After Gyumri Massacre
Locals exchange money as a Russian soldier waits to complete a purchase in Gyumri's central market. Russian servicemen are a common sight, with an estimated 3,000 Russian soldiers stationed in the city of 120,000, and many travel to the city center on breaks and shopping runs.
The hallway that Private Valery Permyakov allegedly entered on his way to carrying out the killings in the Avetisians' home. Five family members were shot; 6-month-old Seryozha and his mother, Araksia Pogosian (second and third from right), were stabbed with a bayonet.
Permyakov is alleged to have entered an unlocked security gate and then smashed through this door to gain entry to the home. To get there he is believed to have wandered more than 4 kilometers in the early hours of January 12 in freezing temperatures, armed with an AK-74 assault rifle. On capture the 18-year-old reportedly claimed he was looking for "a glass of water" and started shooting inside the house after he was refused.
Samvel "The Bear" Melkonian, who sells sheep on the road leading to the Russian base. "Those murders hurt all of us, but we can't judge all the Russians by one crazy soldier. I can tell you now if the Russian Army pulled out of here, there'd be a Turkish flag flying over this town within the week," Melkonian says. "Azerbaijan and Turkey would come at us from both sides. We see the Russian soldiers come past here every day; they're OK lads. The only thing I have against them is they hardly ever buy our sheep!"
Just 10 minutes' drive from the main square of Gyumri (pictured) lies the Turkish border. Turkey and Azerbaijan are seen as Armenia's traditional enemies and both countries have large and well-funded armies. In recent years, Azerbaijan has been making increasingly aggressive statements about territory the two countries fought a war over from 1988 to 1994.
Artisan Edvard Jamakochian after grinding one of the traditional Armenian cups he makes for a living.
"After those murders, this whole town was angry. It was the young guys who were out on the street kicking police cars in front of the Russian Consulate, but believe me, every household felt the same anger. I remember the last time the Russians killed here, too," Jamakochian says, referring to a 1999 incident involving two Russian servicemen. "A couple of soldiers came into the town drunk and shot up the center of town. Two of our people died and we never got justice. Now in court this Permyakov keeps asking for breaks and they give them to him! That's why we don't have faith in the trial. I don't like the Russians being here in Gyumri, but, to be frank with you, we are a small country in a dangerous neighborhood and we have no choice."
This windswept hillside, some 8 kilometers from Gyumri, is the final resting place of the Avetisian family.
A statue of Mother Armenia looks out over Gyumri. In June 2015, five months after the killing of the Avetisian family, the body of Russian soldier Ivan Novikov was found near the statue with multiple stab wounds. Another Russian soldier was arrested on suspicion of murder.
Russian soldiers patrol an area where Russian servicemen and their families are housed.
None Arajhanian on one of her daily visits to the Cathedral of the Holy Mother of God. The church, on Gyumri's main square, is one place you're unlikely to find a Russian soldier. Russians and Armenians follow different branches of Christianity and have separate churches in the city.
An Armenian Army officer (right) walks past Russian soldiers in Gyumri's center. The officer made eye contact with the soldiers, but no greetings were exchanged.
A young Russian soldier waits his turn inside a pharmacy in the center of Gyumri.
A Russian soldier selecting mandarins in the central market. As part of the investigation into the Avetisian killings, investigators reportedly uncovered a massive fraud operation in which $7.8 million of food intended for Russian soldiers in Armenia was stolen and resold.
The entrance to the 102nd base in Gyumri, where Permakov is awaiting trial in solitary confinement.
Permyakov's alleged escape from the base and the subsequent killings have left Gyumri residents with more questions than answers. Many say they have lost trust in both the Russian and the Armenian investigations.
"The base is located on Armenian, not Russian, territory; it's not an embassy," says Levon Barsegyan, a member of Gyumri's council of elders. "But our prosecutors have taken no action to arrest Permyakov; they simply surrendered our sovereignty."
According to Barsegyan, Russian prosecutors have made only nine of the 72 volumes composing Permyakov's criminal case available to their Armenian counterparts.
"I have a feeling that he's not being handed over to Armenian justice in order to prevent him from revealing anything about the Russian base," he says. "There have been reports of embezzlement and financial fraud; perhaps the Russian Defense Ministry doesn't want these facts to come to light."
Permyakov's murder trial is scheduled to resume on January 18.