Friday, August 26, 2016


Khodorkovsky By The Numbers

Mikhail Khodorkovsky during his trial in Moscow in 2003 (right) and in 2011 while in prison.
Mikhail Khodorkovsky during his trial in Moscow in 2003 (right) and in 2011 while in prison.
By Tom Balmforth
It has been 10 years since Yukos CEO Mikhail Khodorkovsky was arrested on a Siberian airstrip on October 25, 2003. On the occasion of the anniversary, RFE/RL takes a look at some of the numbers behind the Khodorkovsky saga.

2 -- The number of times Mikhail Khodorkovsky has been convicted, alongside his business partner Platon Lebedev. In 2005, Khodorkovsky was found guilty of tax evasion and fraud. In 2010, he was convicted on new charges of embezzlement and money laundering.

4 -- The number of children Khodorkovsky has had by two marriages.

7 -- The identification number of the correctional facility (IK-7) where Khodorkovsky has been incarcerated since June 2011 in Segezha, a town close to the Arctic Circle and roughly 1,300 kilometers northwest of Moscow.

9 -- The number of legal and economic experts who criticized Khodorkovsky's second trial in a report for the Kremlin Human Rights Council, which was drafted at the behest of then-President Dmitry Medvedev in December 2011. Since the report, several authors have been interrogated by the Investigative Committee. One of them, Sergei Guriyev, fled the country. Some observers see this as a sign the Kremlin may be cooking up a third case against Khodorkovsky.

10 -- The number of years since Khodorkovsky was arrested.

16 -- Khodorkovsky's highest ranking on "Forbes" magazine's annual list of the world's richest people, which he scored in 2004. At the peak of his wealth, Khodorkovsky was worth an estimated $15 billion, making him the richest man in Russia before he was overtaken by Roman Abramovich.

50 -- Khodorkovsky's age. Watch Pavel Khodorkovsky greet his father on his 50th birthday, on June 25, 2013, in this YouTube video.

65 -- The percentage of Muscovites who would welcome the release of Khodorkovsky, according to a Levada Center poll published this week. Some 32 percent believe that ultimately any decision to release him "depends personally on [President] Vladimir Putin." Speaking about Khodorkovsky in 2010, Putin famously said: "a thief must sit in jail." Just over 50 percent of Muscovites consider Khodorkovsky the main political prisoner in the country.

303 -- The number of days until Khodorkovsky is due to be released, provided there is no new case brought against him. His current release date is August 25, 2014.

PHOTO GALLERY: From Young Tycoon To Graying Inmate
  • Mikhail Khodorkovsky in 1992, when he was chairman of the board of directors of Menatep bank
  • Khodorkovsky with his family in October 1992
  • Khodorkovsky and his family at their dacha in 1992
  • Khodorkovsky, Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin (center), and Fuel and Energy Minister Sergei Kiriyenko (right) during the signing of a memorandum of intention to merge the Yukos and Sibneft companies on January 6, 1998
  • Khodorkovsky meets with Russian President Vladimir Putin in March 2002. Khodorkovsky challenged the Kremlin's authority by funding NGOs and opposition parties, lobbying to privatize the state-owned oil pipeline monopoly, and accusing Kremlin officials of corruption.
  • Khodorkovsky speaks at the Yukos headquarters in Moscow in June 2003, months before his arrest on fraud and tax evasion charges.
  • Russian police escort the former Yukos oil chief to a courthouse in Moscow on December 23, 2003.
  • Khodorkovsky supporters protest outside a Moscow court on January 15, 2004. Many Russians see him as a political prisoner jailed for political ambition and his criticism of President Putin. Amnesty International considers him a prisoner of conscience.
  • Khodorkovsky and Platon Lebedev hear the verdict in a Moscow court on May 16, 2005.
  • Khodorkovsky at a hearing at the Chita Regional Court in October 2008. During his imprisonment, Yukos was broken up and sold off, mostly into state hands.
  • Supporters rally on August 27, 2009, as prosecutors presented new charges against Khodorkovsky.
  • Khodorkovsky and Lebedev are escorted to a hearing in Moscow on January 11, 2010.
  • Elena Lukyanova (left), a lawyer for Khodorkovsky, and his daughter Anastasia Khodorkovskaya attend "Znamya" magazine's literary award ceremony in January 2010, where Khodorkovskaya received an award on her father's behalf  for his "Dialogues With Lyudmila Ulitskaya."
  • The former CEO's mother, Marina Khodorkovskaya (right), his wife Inna (left), and his daughter Anastasia walk out after a court hearing in Moscow on December 30, 2010. A judge sentenced Khodorkovsky to additional prison time on new charges of financial crimes.
  • Khodorkovsky's book "Articles. Dialogues. Interviews." is presented in Moscow in January 2011.
  • Khodorkovsky and Lebedev stand in the defendants' box during a hearing in Moscow in May 2011.
  • Police detain a Khodorkovsky supporter during a gathering in central Moscow in June 2011.
  • Activists in London send a birthday message to Khodorkovsky in 2012. On June 26, 2013, he celebrated his 50th birthday in a remote prison colony near the Arctic Circle.
  • Members of a pro-Kremlin youth group wear masks representing anti-Putin opposition leaders during a demonstration called "Send them to join Khodorkovsky as guests!" on the occasion of the jailed businessman's 50th birthday.

2011 -- The year Amnesty International named Khodorkovsky a prisoner of conscience.

3,653 -- The number of days Khodorkovsky has spent in prison (as of October 25).

6,900 -- The distance in kilometers from Moscow of Krasnokammensk’s prison camp, YaG 14/10, where Khodorkovsky was incarcerated from 2005 to 2011. Khodorkovsky stitched police uniforms and mittens in the camp, which is located near the border with China and Mongolia in the vicinity of an infamous uranium mine. In June 2011, Khodorkovsky was moved to a prison colony in Segezha, near the Arctic Circle.

10,000 -- The amount of money in euros that the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg ordered the Kremlin to pay Khodorkovsky in damages in July 2013. In the ruling, the court found that the first trial against the tycoon was not politically motivated, although it found the trial was unfair and the sentence unjustified.

1.69 million -- The average number of barrels of oil produced daily by state energy giant Rosneft in 2005. Rosneft -- whose current CEO, Igor Sechin, is a close ally of Putin -- acquired the lion's share of Yukos's assets after Khodorkovsky's arrest. Thus began the meteoric rise of Rosneft, which can be seen on this graph on Rosneft’s website.

2.4 million -- The average number of barrels of oil Rosneft produced daily in 2012.

350 million -- The relatively paltry number of dollars that Khodorkovsky paid in the mid-'90s for Yukos, which would later become the largest oil company in the country. He picked it up as part of the controversial "loans for shares" deal that President Boris Yeltsin's Kremlin struck with the country’s tycoons in 1995. 

350 million -- The number of tons of oil that Khodorkovsky and Lebedev were originally charged with stealing in their second trial. The total was later revised downward to 218 million tons. In December 2010, Khodorkovsky was convicted of embezzlement and laundering the proceeds.

12.8 billion -- An estimate of the amount of money in dollars that Khodorkovsky's fortune fell from 2004 to 2005.

Tom Balmforth

Tom Balmforth covers Russia and other former Soviet republics.


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