Officials of Russia's Federal Security Service (FSB) say that five alleged members of the banned Islamic group Hizb ut-Tahrir were arrested in the city of Chelyabinsk in the Urals region.
The five have been charged with "preparing for the violent overthrow of the constitutional government."
Hizb ut-Tahrir is an international Sunni political party that seeks to unite all Muslim countries into an Islamic caliphate.
It says its uses peaceful means to pursue its goals but was banned by Russia's Supreme Court in February 2003.
The Chelyabinsk region of Russia borders with Kazakhstan and Russia’s Republic of Bashkortostan, which has a significant Muslim population.
A number of former Soviet countries have also banned Hizb ut-Tahrir, branding its supporters "extremists."
With reporting by Interfax