The Life Of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
Published 20 January 2014
January 21 is the 90th anniversary of the death of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, the founder of the Bolshevik party and the Soviet state. Here is a look at the life of one of the most influential political figures of the 20th century.
Vladimir Lenin in his office in the Kremlin in October 1918, roughly one year after the Bolshevik Revolution that brought him to power and set off years of civil war.
Lenin was born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov in Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk) on April 22, 1870. In this photo from 1879, he poses with his family (front row, right).
A prison photograph shows Lenin in 1895 during his arrest for revolutionary activities. On the right, the prison in St. Petersburg where Lenin was held from December 1895 until February 1897
Photographs from 1897 show Lenin and Nadezhda Krupskaya, whom he married in 1898 while both were in exile in Siberia. After his three years in exile, Lenin left Russia for Western Europe, where he would spend the next decade and a half.
Lenin, left, plays chess with writer and fellow revolutionary Aleksander Bogdanov at Maxim Gorky's residence in Capri in 1908. While living in Western Europe, Lenin became a prominent figure in the international revolutionary movement.
Lenin with a group of Russian political émigrés in Stockholm, Sweden, on April 13, 1917, shortly before his return to Russia
At the Tavrichesky Palace in St. Petersburg, Lenin delivers one of his April Theses calling for a socialist revolution in April 1917.
Lenin appears in disguise -- clean-shaven and wearing a wig -- for a factory worker's identity card, where his name is given as K. Ivanov. The forged card helped him flee to Finland after the Russian Provisional Government launched criminal proceedings against him in 1917.
A demonstration in Moscow in the period before the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917
Lenin at the presidium of the first congress of the Comintern, the international communist organization initiated in Moscow in March 1919.
Lenin observes a May 1, 1919 parade of Vsevobuch [Universal Military Training] units on Moscow's Red Square.
The Rolls-Royce used by Lenin in 1921-1922
Fanny Yefimovna Kaplan was a Russian political revolutionary who attempted to assassinate Lenin on August 30, 1918. Kaplan shot the leader twice with a pistol as he left a Moscow factory after delivering an address. Lenin survived, but his health was severely compromised.
In 1922, Lenin suffered a stroke that further impaired his health. He died on January 21, 1924.
Columns of workers line up to pay their respects in Moscow on January 23.
Lenin's funeral on Moscow's Red Square on January 27, 1924
Lenin's funeral on Red Square
Lenin's remains were placed in this mausoleum at the Kremlin wall.
Lenin's mausoleum was altered to also house the remains of Soviet leader Josef Stalin after his death in 1953. Stalin's body was removed from the mausoleum in 1961.