At least two rockets hit the military section of Kabul's international airport on July 3.
No casualties were reported, but a hangar was set ablaze.
The military side of the airport includes a large NATO base as well as a separate terminal for civilian flights to cities such as Dubai, New Delhi, and Istanbul.
The Taliban claimed responsibility for the attack, saying a number of aircraft were also damaged.
The strike comes a day after a Taliban suicide bomber in Kabul killed eight military officers traveling on a military bus.
The Afghan capital has been relatively peaceful since the second round of the country's presidential election was held on June 14.