Kazakh opposition activists are commemorating the victims of unrest in the western city of Zhanaozen one year ago.
At least 16 people were killed and more than 100 were wounded in clashes between riot police and residents in Zhanaozen on December 16, 2011 during an Independence Day gathering.
Dozens of opposition activists on December 16 gathered at the Independence Monument in Kazakhstan's largest city, Almaty to lay flowers in memory of those killed in the unrest.
Police officers stood nearby but did not intervene.
Similar commemorations were held in several other cities, including the capital Astana.
Last year's violence in Zhanaozen came after a months-long protest by oil workers.
The riots led to a year-long crackdown, including the arrest and trials of opposition activists and the closure of independent media outlets.
With reporting by Interfax