European Union foreign affairs chief Catherine Ashton said she chaired the meeting between Serbia's Ivica Dacic and Kosovo's Hashim Thaci after meeting separately with the two leaders in Brussels.
Ashton said the encounter took place "in a good and constructive atmosphere," adding that they would meet again soon.
Serbia refuses to recognize the independence that the predominantly ethnic Albanian Kosovo declared in 2008.
But in 2011, the two sides engaged in an EU-facilitated dialogue to resolve day-to-day problems.
The talks were halted after Serbia held elections in May.
The EU is stepping up pressure to resume them.