Russia says there is "no credible evidence" of civilian deaths as a result of Russian air strikes in Syria.
Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov made the comments on February 9, a day after German Chancellor Angela Merkel said she was "horrified" by the suffering being caused by Russia's bombing campaign among civilians.
The spokesman also described as "wrong and absurd" accusations by Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan that Russia was engaged in an invasion of Syria.
Moscow has also accused Ankara of planning to invade Syria.
Russia launched air strikes in Syria on September 30, helping government forces recapture some territory lost to extremist groups and other opposition fighters in central and western Syria.
Turkey shot down a Russian bomber on the Syrian-Turkish border in November, resulting in a breakdown in relations between Moscow and Ankara.
Based on reporting by Reuters and TASS