Some 2,700 people were evacuated from nearby homes after dozens of cars of a cargo train transporting oil products went off the rails in Russia's southwest region of Rostov.
Russia media said several tanker cars caught fire after the accident at a railway station in Belaya Kalitva.
Firefighters extinguished the blaze, which had spread from the cargo cars to adjacent areas.
Twenty three people were injured in the accident, with 10 hospitalized, one in serious condition.
It was unclear what caused the train to derail.
An investigation has been launched.
Based on reporting by ITAR-TASS