Turkey says it has summoned Russia's ambassador in protest at the "intensive" bombing of Turkoman villages in northern Syria by Russian jets.
Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu made the announcement to reporters on November 20.
Turkey also conveyed its "warning and demand" to President Vladimir Putin's special envoy for the Middle East, Mikhail Bogdanov.
The development comes as Russian President Vladimir Putin pledged to intensify Russia's bombing campaign on November 17, after Moscow confirmed that a bomb had brought down a Russian plane over Egypt on October 31, killing all 224 onboard.
An affiliate of the Islamic State extremist group had claimed responsibility for downing the jet.