The UN says that violence in Iraq killed at least 1,273 people during October.
According to the report issued November 1 by the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI), at least 856 civilians and 417 security forces members were killed and more than 2,000 were injured.
The worst-hit city was Baghdad, with 379 civilians killed, the report said.
The UNAMI casualty figures exclude Anbar province, west of Baghdad, where the Islamic State (IS) jihadist group has dealt pro-government forces a string of setbacks in recent weeks.
The Iraqi government has put the October toll significantly higher, saying 1,725 civilians and members of the security forces were killed -- some 500 people more than listed in the UN report.