Two other students, from Spain and Peru, were badly injured in the 9 October attack in the central Russian city of Voronezh.
Interfax says the man charged with the murder is also a student. The suspect was not named.
Prosecutors charged at least 12 other youths suspected of taking part in the attack with lesser crimes.
The murder of the 18-year-old Peruvian who was studying in Voronezh followed a number of attacks on foreigners and sparked fears of a rise in xenophobia in Russia.