The Supreme Court said in a statement that the 78 civilian defendants are accused of "taking part in terrorist acts" in Andijon.
The 36 law-enforcement officials include police and soldiers charged with failing to prevent a series of attacks on government installations in the city. These were the first charges filed against officials in relation to the unrest.
However, dozens of people have already been found guilty on terrorist charges and sentenced to lengthy prison terms.
Uzbek officials say 187 people, mostly terrorists, were killed in the Andijon uprising. Rights advocates estimate the death toll to be much higher, with civilians numbering among the dead.