The Russian Interior Ministry's Northern Caucasus department believes one of the men seized took part in an attack on a police patrol in 2004, in which one police officer was killed and two others were injured.
Another had allegedly been in a 30-strong group that killed five Russian troops in the village of Roshni-Chu in August 2005.
Two men were detained for storing weapons for militants and gathering information on federal troops.
The arrests were made in a range in four different parts of Chechnya: in the town of Gudermes and in the districts of Nozhai-Yurt, Achkoi-Martan, and Shyolkovsky.
One suspected militant gave himself up in the Vedeno district.
It was not immediately clear when the sweep operations took place.