The ruling allows the authorities to make it illegal to publicly support the party.
The leader of the group, ultranationalist writer Eduard Limonov, says he plans to appeal to the European Court of Human Rights.
Members of the group, which has played an active role in organizing the so-called "Marches of Dissent" in several Russian cities, say the court ruling will not prevent them from continuing political activities within the opposition umbrella group called Other Russia.
Members of the National Bolshevik Party have been arrested at demonstrations across Russia and complain of heavy-handed police tactics at protests.
(AP, ITAR-TASS, Interfax)