Blogger Rasad Ramazanov was jailed for nine years for drug possession.
In a separate case, Sardar Alibeyli, the editor of the opposition newspaper "P.S. Nota," was sentenced to four years in prison on hooliganism charges.
Their supporters say the charges are politically motivated.
Amnesty International condemned the two sentences on November 14, calling the cases against two men "based on offenses fabricated by the prosecution."
The rights watchdog also lambasted a criminal probe launched by Azerbaijani authorities against a leading independent election monitor.
The Election Monitoring Center had been critical of last month's election, won by longtime President Ilham Aliyev.
Amnesty also said two opposition newspapers that criticized the poll have been forced to stop printing their daily editions amid government pressure.