The Crisis Group (ICG) says the five Central Asian countries need to develop a credible, coordinated action plan to counter the threats posed by Islamic State militants and "growing radicalism" in the region.
In the January 20 report, "Syria Calling: Radicalisation in Central Asia," the international think-tank said between 2,000 and 4,000 Central Asians have left for areas held by Islamic State mliitants or otherwise support the extremist group's cause.
The ICG said Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan -- crippled by corruption and poor governance and policing -- have done little to address a threat as intricate as radical Islam.
Instead, they are fuelling further radicalization by curtailing civil liberties and initiating security crackdowns, the report said.
ICG urged the governments to improve security coordination, as well as to liberalize religious laws and provide greater economic opportunities for young people.