On October 4, 2020, Kyrgyzstan held parliamentary elections.
The campaign had been overshadowed by accusations of vote-buying and manipulation that favored certain political parties, and not long after the results of the elections were released, outbreaks of public discontent started in the capital, Bishkek.
The government fell before the sun rose on October 6, and since then the new leadership has implemented significant and often controversial changes.
Both in domestic and foreign politics, it has been one the most eventful 12-month periods Kyrgyzstan has seen since independence in 1991.
Some inside and outside Kyrgyzstan are questioning the motives of the new leadership and the abilities of new President Sadyr Japarov and his top officials to deal with the many problems facing Kyrgyzstan at the moment, from the battle against the spread of the coronavirus, to a devastating drought that not only endangers food security but also leaves the country's hydropower plants unable to meet power needs, to border problems with Tajikistan that in late April led to the first clash between two armies of Central Asian states since independence.
And new parliamentary elections are scheduled for late November.
On this week's Majlis podcast, RFE/RL's media-relations manager, Muhammad Tahir, moderates a discussion on the tumultuous last year in Kyrgyzstan.
This week's guests are: from Bishkek, constitutional lawyer Saniya Toktogazieva; also from Bishkek, Emil Joroev, a political analyst and professor at the American University of Central Asia; and Bruce Pannier, the author of the Qishloq Ovozi blog.