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Qishloq Ovozi

Voters stand in line before casting their ballots at a polling station during the parliamentary election in Bishkek on November 28.

Voting in Kyrgyzstan's parliamentary elections had ended and many thousands of people both live and online were carefully watching the Central Election Commission (BShK) monitor that was tabulating the votes -- anxious to see how their parties and candidates had fared.

Only a couple of hours had passed since polling stations closed on November 28, but some 70 percent of the ballots had been counted and the numbers showed 10 parties passing the 5-percent threshold to win seats in parliament.

But the monitor suddenly went blank and when the stats returned some 40 minutes later with 90 percent of the vote counted, the numbers were significantly different and several parties that earlier appeared set to be in parliament were suddenly below the threshold.

The so-called monitor "blackout" was a shocking twist to what had been a relatively calm day, where the main story had been the low voter turnout for the vote -- less than 35 percent.

Not surprisingly, the parties that had just seen their hopes for seats in parliament literally disappear before their eyes were the first to cry foul.

The Ata-Meken (Fatherland) party had 6.17 percent of the vote before the screen went dark but had 3.4 percent when the counting finished. Ata-Meken leader Omurbek Tekebaev said his party had lost some 30,000 votes when the monitor came back on.

Omurbek Tekebaev (file photo)
Omurbek Tekebaev (file photo)

Uluttar Birimdigi (Unity of Nationalities) was approaching the 5-percent barrier with 4.47 percent of the vote when the monitor blackout occurred and the party finished with just 2.39 percent. Party leader Nurlan Adaev said his party had about 17,000 fewer votes when the monitor switched on again.

Kyrgyz officials compounded the problem by offering various accounts of what had happened.

BShK chief Nurzhan Shaildabekova gave a convoluted explanation, complete with two spreadsheets as a visual aid, to convince people the temporary outage was a technical error that affected only the monitor and had no bearing on the tabulation of the votes.

Nurzhan Shaildabekova (file photo)
Nurzhan Shaildabekova (file photo)

Other officials said the system had been hacked and it was noted by some observers that the monitor at one point had indicated 150 percent of the electorate had cast ballots and the parties in the lead had received some 130 percent of the vote.

It was also noted that when the monitor went off, the pro-government party Ata-Jurt Kyrgyzstan had some 30 percent of the vote. When the monitor resumed functioning, Ata-Jurt Kyrgyzstan was down to some 16 percent of the vote.

The percentages for other pro-government parties such as Isehnim (Trust) and Yntymak (Harmony) also decreased.

President Sadyr Japarov did little to ease tensions when he threatened that if any member of the BShK had falsified the vote count, they would answer for it "with their head."

That did little to mollify those who went into the elections suspecting the government would resort to some trickery to ensure their people won seats.

And naturally the explanations of officials did not satisfy members of the El Umutu (People's Hope), Azattyk (Liberty), Ata-Meken, or the Social Democrats, which were all headed toward seats in parliament until the monitor malfunction.

Representatives of the Ata-Meken, Uluttar Birimdigi, Azattyk, and Social Democrats held an early morning press conference on November 29 to vent their anger, call for the cabinet and BShK members to resign, and demand the election results be annulled and a new election held.

About 100 of their supporters demonstrated outside the BShK building in Bishkek later on November 29 to echo the demands of the party leaders.

BShK chief Shaildabekova met with the demonstrators and apologized for the "mistake" on the monitor while guaranteeing that there was no rigging or manipulation of the vote.

The BShK monitor blackout was not the only issue that has raised concerns for those disputing the voting results. The BShK also threw out 116,246 ballots -- some 9.64 percent of the vote -- that were declared invalid.

The BShK has not yet explained why all those votes were declared invalid, but there were concerns going into the elections that the mixed system of voting being employed -- whereby 54 of the 90 seats in parliament were selected by party lists and the remaining 36 seats in single-mandate districts -- might confuse some voters.

Particularly the party-list ballot, since it required voters to choose one of 21 parties and then, on the same ballot, indicate which one of the 54 candidates from that party they wanted in parliament.

Anecdotal evidence suggests some voters marked two candidates or marked a candidate and neglected to specify a party on some of the ballots. But it is unclear how often this happened and it seems unlikely that would account for 10 percent of the votes cast being declared invalid.

The elections generally went better than usual, certainly better than the parliamentary elections of October 4, 2020, which were characterized by abuses and violations and quickly resulted in unrest that ousted the government and then the president. Though some violations were reported, it was not on the scale of previous elections and nowhere close to what happened during those elections.

The OSCE's Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) sent hundreds of monitors and the group's November 29 assessment noted the elections were "competitive" and "transparency was overall ensured."

ODIHR also referred to constitutional changes in April that weakened parliament and led to a "stifled campaign and overall voter disillusionment [that] hindered meaningful engagement."

Votes are now being counted by hand in a process that might take several days. The BShK has proclaimed that the hand count will be the final results.

It is unknown if the results of that count will significantly alter the preliminary results announced late on November 28 that had only six parties -- Ata-Jurt, Ishenim, Yntymak, Alliance, Butun Kyrgyzstan, and Yyman Nuru (Ray of Faith) receiving seats in parliament.

Such a result will be very unsatisfying to many in Kyrgyzstan.

So will the fact that all the winners in the single-mandate districts were men. Kyrgyzstan has rules that require at least 30 percent of the seats in parliament be occupied by women -- which in practice has not been the case -- but this time it appears parliament will be well short of that quota.

So while the aftermath of the election has thus far have been relatively calm compared to the chaos following the October 2020 elections that upturned Kyrgyzstan's political culture, the groundwork has been laid for complaints and protests in the future days.

Election workers count ballots at a polling station in Bishkek.

The preliminary results from the November 28 parliamentary elections in Kyrgyzstan show good early results for pro-government parties amid a low-voter turnout in the country of some 6 million people and charges by the opposition of vote-count fraud.

The elections will determine who gets the 90 seats in the unicameral parliament, down from 120 in the previous legislature after a nationwide referendum approved changes to the constitution that gave the president and his government far greater powers.

Low Turnout Marks Kyrgyz Parliamentary Elections
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Here are five takeaways from the elections.

Big Win For Pro-Government Parties

The parties with the three most votes in the elections are all pro-government and are projected to get at least 36 of the 54 party-list seats, as Ata-Jurt (Fatherland) Kyrgyzstan (16.6 percent), Ishenim (Trust) (13.3 percent), and the Yntymak (Harmony) party (10.59 percent) swept the first three spots.

A religious-oriented party that is also seen as mainly pro-government, Yyman Nuru (Ray of Faith) (5.2 percent), was the sixth and final party to gain entry in parliament.

Kyrgyz President Sadyr Japarov casts his vote in parliamentary elections on November 28.
Kyrgyz President Sadyr Japarov casts his vote in parliamentary elections on November 28.

With additional pro-government candidates winning in the single-mandate districts, the government of President Sadyr Japarov should have solid parliamentary support with pro-government parties holding a commanding majority of the seats.

Disappointment, Anger For The Opposition

With so many pro-government parties doing well, it was a very poor showing for the opposition parties, with Butun (United) Kyrgyzstan (6.6 percent) garnering the most votes.

The new Alliance party, which is considered mainly progressive with a lot of younger candidates, will also be positioned with the opposition on many issues. It finished in fourth place with 8.08 percent of the vote.

Ata-Meken (also meaning Fatherland), which is led by longtime opposition leader Omurbek Tekebaev, finished with just 3.42 percent, a poor showing the party leader blamed on voter fraud.

"We were winning at least 8-10 percent, according to our own surveys," said Tekebaev. "On the [Central Election Commission's] first electronic screenshot [that was made public], our party had some 71,000 votes. After the screen was turned off and reloaded again, we [only] had some 41,000 votes. It means votes were stolen from our popular politicians Ali Toktakunov, Tilek Toktogaziev, Natalia Nikitenko, and Klara Sooronkulova."

Election Commission Blackout, Large Invalid Vote Total Leads To Fraud Charges

Several opposition parties, including Ata-Meken, Azattyk (Liberty), the Social Democrats, and Uluttar Birimdigi held a press conference in Bishkek after the preliminary vote totals were announced saying they will not recognize the results, charging the Central Election Commission changed vote totals during the 40-minute blackout of its electronic tabulation.

The leader of the Uluttar Birimdigi (One Nation), Nurlan Adaev, said his party had 47,074 votes before the screen went blank and when it came back on it had lost some 17,000 votes.

The parties also said the huge number of invalid ballots -- some 122,000 or nearly 10 percent of all those cast -- leads them to believe that votes were stolen from them. The opposition parties are demanding the elections be annulled and that a date for new elections be announced.

There were also complaints about violations during election day with some claiming that political parties or individual candidates were paying people to go onto minibuses that took them to and from the polling stations in exchange for their vote.

Voting Machine Malfunctions, Record Low Turnout In Kyrgyz Parliamentary Elections
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Other voters were seen photographing their completed ballots before dropping them into ballot boxes.

In the past, parties or candidates accused of bribing people to vote for them were reportedly asking voters to take a picture of their ballots after they were filled in as proof that they had cast their vote for the people offering money.

Another complaint stemmed from some of the e-ballot boxes malfunctioning and voters then being asked to leave their completed ballots on tables until the problem was fixed. In some instances, poll workers said they would deposit the ballots themselves.

Despite those voting process complaints, there did appear to be far fewer violations during election campaigning and on election day than has been the case in previous elections.

Turnout Burnout

These parliamentary elections saw the lowest voter turnout of any of the elections previously conducted in Kyrgyzstan with only a reported 32.25 percent of the electorate casting ballots. It is a major decrease from the turnout for the failed parliamentary elections held in October 2020, which was 58.89 percent.

These were the fourth nationwide elections in less than 14 months in Kyrgyzstan and voter turnout has gone down with each new poll.

New System Causes Some Confusion

This was the first time Kyrgyzstan conducted parliamentary elections using a split system.

There are a reduced number of seats available in parliament after a national referendum in April approved a new constitution with a stronger executive branch of government. Of the 90 seats, 54 were chosen from party lists and 36 from voting in single-mandate districts.

Some voters -- confused by the party-list ballot that required a voter to select one of 21 parties and also to choose one of 54 candidates from that party -- were reported to be asking poll workers for assistance. Some cited this is a violation of voter privacy.

RFE/RL's Kyrgyz Service contributed to this report

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About This Blog

Qishloq Ovozi is a blog by RFE/RL Central Asia specialist Bruce Pannier that aims to look at the events that are shaping Central Asia and its respective countries, connect the dots to shed light on why those processes are occurring, and identify the agents of change.

Content draws on the extensive knowledge and contacts of RFE/RL's Central Asian services but also allow scholars in the West, particularly younger scholars who will be tomorrow’s experts on the region, opportunities to share their views on the evolving situation at this Eurasian crossroad.

The name means "Village Voice" in Uzbek. But don't be fooled, Qishloq Ovozi is about all of Central Asia.


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