The new rules would apply to all of the citizens of the Commonwealth of Independent States, except Turkmenistan and Georgia.
The bills were strongly opposed by Russian nationalists, who claim that the migrants are taking jobs from Russians.
The bills must still be passed in two more readings.
Click on the map to see how many Russians live in each of the former Soviet republics.
RUSSIANS OUTSIDE OF RUSSIA: A total of some 30 million ethnic Russians remain in the republics of the former Soviet Union, including large diasporas in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus. This historical legacy has often been a source of tension between Russia and its neighbors. "Support for the rights of compatriots abroad is a crucial goal," Russian President Vladimir Putin said in his April 2005 state-of-the-nation address. "It cannot be subject to a diplomatic or political bargaining. Those who do not respect, observe, or ensure human rights have no right to demand that human rights be respected by others."
To view a complete archive of RFE/RL's coverage of Russia, click here.
To subscribe to "RFE/RL's Russia Report," click here .