Chaika replaces Vladimir Ustinov, who resigned in a surprise move on June 2. Ustinov had occupied the post for six years.
Ustinov's departure followed criticism by Putin that Russia is failing to combat corruption, and the firing of a number of law enforcement officials in May.
Speaker Sergei Mironov said he expects the upper house of parliament, the Federation Council, to back Chaika's nomination in a vote on June 23.
Chaika served for four years as deputy prosecutor-general before becoming justice minister in 1999.
(compiled from agency reports)
MORE: To read RFE/RL's Russian Service coverage of this topic in Russian, click here.