A statement by the U.S. attorney in Kentucky said Green and three other soldiers were accused of raping and killing a 25-year-old Iraqi woman and three members of her family, among them a five-year-old girl. Iraqi reports say the rape victim was 16.
The charges are the result of a military investigation into the case, which is believed to involve up to five soldiers, including Green.
Four men serving in the 502nd Infantry Regiment in Iraq have been placed under U.S. military arrest.
The incident occurred in a village near Al-Mahmudiyah, south of Baghdad.
If convicted of premeditated murder, the soldiers could face the death penalty.