Reporters Without Borders (RSF) says Islamic State (IS) militants have executed at least 13 journalists and other media workers in Mosul since seizing the northern Iraqi city in June 2014.
In a new report compiled with the Iraq-based Journalistic Freedoms Observatory, RSF said the fate of least 10 of the 48 media workers who have been kidnapped in Mosul over the past 16 months is unknown.
Describing Mosul as a "death trap for journalists," the study also said 60 journalists, citizen journalists, and media workers had fled Iraq's second-largest city.
"Some who went back paid for this mistake with their lives," it said.
The report said independent media activity in Mosul has been "non-existent," and that all journalists still in the city have had to stop working to avoid being the target of reprisals.
Meanwhile, IS militants have taken control of local television and radio stations, turning the city into an "information black hole."