The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has stripped three athletes of medals they won in the 2008 and 2012 Summer Olympics after reanalysis of samples returned positive for banned substances.
The IOC on April 5 ordered Uzbek wrestler Artur Taymazov, who won gold in Beijing in 2008, and Ukrainian wrestler Vasyl Fedoryshyn, who won silver the same year, to surrender their medals.
The organization also disqualified Russian weightlifter Svetlana Tsarukayeva, who picked up a silver in London in 2012. That decision upgraded Canadian Christine Girard from bronze to gold, because gold-medal winner Maiya Maneza, of Kazkhstan, was disqualified last year.
In all, 65 athletes have been sanctioned from the 2008 games, in decisions that affected 45 medals. Forty-five athletes have been sanctioned from the 2012 London games, affecting 20 medals.
The IOC stores samples for 10 years and has now reanalyzed more than 1,000 samples from 2008 and 2012 using modern methods.