Poland is marking the 70th anniversary of the beginning of the Warsaw Uprising, when thousands of poorly armed civilians rose up against Nazi German forces in August 1944.
President Bronislaw Komorowski laid flowers at a memorial on August 1, and the country observed a moment of silence.
More than 200,000 Poles were killed during the 63-day uprising, during which they tried to take control of the capital from the Germans as the Soviet Red Army approached.
However, the Soviets stopped their advance, allowing the Germans to regroup and defeat the Polish resistance, which fought with little outside support.
After the Germans suppressed the uprising, they set the city on fire.
Poles were not allowed to mark the event during the Soviet period, but there have been annual commemorations since 1989.