The Russian Foreign Ministry summoned the Polish ambassador to Moscow on September 25 after graves of Soviet soldiers were vandalized in a Polish village.
Poland's Foreign Ministry also condemned the act.
The incident comes just over a week after Ambassador Katarzyna Pelczynska-Nalecz was summoned in Moscow to explain the removal of a Soviet-era statue in a Polish town.
The Russian ministry demanded exhaustive measures to find and bring to justice those who desecrated 57 graves at a cemetery in Milejczyce.
It was not clear when the graves were damaged. Photographs showed smashed tombstones with red stone Soviet stars scattered across the ground.
"One gets the impression that the desecration of our memorial places has been raised in Poland to the rank of a state policy," the ministry said.
"We condemn all acts of vandalism at war cemeteries," Polish Foreign Ministry spokesman Marcin Wojciechowski said, adding that authorities are investigating the matter.
According to Poland's official wartime cemeteries database, 1,615 Soviet soldiers are buried at the cemetery in mass graves each containing several dozen soldiers.