Deputy Prosecutor-General Sergei Fridinsky said the network had been collecting confidential information on Russian, Kazakh, and Ukrainian children and selling it on to adoption agencies.
Fridinsky said the network was run by a California-based organization called Yunona, whose offices in Russia have been searched.
State television reports that several arrests have been made in Russia.
Fridinsky said U.S. security agencies helped Russian investigators dismantle the network, but provided no further details.
Citing alleged buses of adopted children, many Russian lawmakers are demanding restrictions on international adoptions.
(Interfax, Vesti, lenta.ru)