The ratification protocol was signed in Ashgabat by the two Central Asian countries' foreign ministers, Rashid Meredov and visiting Kasymzhomart Tokaev.
Tokaev is expected later today to meet with Turkmen President Saparmurat Niyazov for talks on energy, transportation, and cultural cooperation.
The 2001 Kazakh-Turkmen treaty concerns the 426-kilometer land border between the two countries.
The Kazakh-Turkmen Caspian Sea boundary has still to be formally delineated, as well as the point where the borders of Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan meet.
(with material from Interfax-Kazakhstan)
LIFE UNDER NIYAZOV: On July 21, RFE/RL's Prague broadcasting center hosted a presentation by TAJIGUL BEGMEDOVA, chairwoman of the Bulgaria-based Turkmenistan Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights (THF). Begmedova discussed the human rights situation in Turkmenistan under President Saparmural Niyazov, focusing on the arrests in June of THF activists and RFE/RL Turkmen Service correspondent Ogulsapar Muradova. Begmedova, who graduated from the Institute of Economy in Moscow in 1987, fled Turkmenistan in 2002 and lives in exile in Sofia.
LISTENListen to the complete presentation (36 minutes; presentation in Russian with consecutive translation into English):
Real Audio Windows Media
Some RFE/RL Coverage Of Human Rights In Turkmenistan:
ARCHIVE RFE/RL coverage of Turkmenistan.