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War Crimes Suspect Mladic Extradited After Serbia Rejects Appeal

The Extradition Of Ratko Mladic
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WATCH: On May 31, a Serbian police convoy escorted former Bosnian Serb general Ratko Mladic from a Belgrade court to the airport for extradition to face war crimes charges in The Hague (video by RFE/RL's Balkan Service).


BELGRADE/WASHINGTON-- Serbian authorities have extradited Bosnian Serb wartime general Ratko Mladic to the UN-backed International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague, where he will face genocide, war crimes, and other charges stemming from his role in the Balkan wars of the 1990s.

The extradition follows a court decision on May 27 that declared the 69-year-old fit for transfer to the Netherlands-based international court, despite objections by his lawyer and relatives that he is too frail to stand trial. Then, on May 31, a Belgrade court rejected a similar appeal from Mladic's lawyer and he was shuttled into international custody within hours.

"Ratko Mladic has been extradited during this afternoon to the Hague tribunal," Serbian Justice Minister Snezana Malovic announced at a news conference in Belgrade. "On the basis of the constitution and the laws of the republic of Serbia, as the minister of justice of the government of the Republic of Serbia, I have signed the decision granting the extradition of Ratko Mladic."

Mladic later arrived on a Serbian government jet in the Dutch city of Rotterdam, before a helicopter-escorted convoy transferred him to the tribunal's detention center outside The Hague.

Tribunal spokeswoman Nerma Jelacic said Mladic would be given a list of defense lawyers who could help him through the initial proceedings of the war crimes court and would be examined by a doctor.

She said he would be spending his first night at the detention center in isolation -- standard practice for new arrivals at the prison.

Mladic is expected to make his initial court appearance within a few days, at which time he will be asked to confirm his identity and enter a plea to each of the charges against him.

He may decline to plead to the charges at his first appearance, instead opting to delay a formal response by up to a month.

Mladic has said that he does not recognize the authority of the international court.

The man who was UN tribunal's most-wanted fugitive had spent nearly 16 years on the run before his capture on May 26 in a northern Serbian village.

He is accused of genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity for his alleged role in the deaths of some 8,000 Muslim men and boys in the Bosnian town of Srebrenica and the bloody four-year siege of Sarajevo.

The Srebrenica massacre of July 1995 is considered the worst atrocity committed in Europe since World War II.

In announcing his extradition, Malovic said Serbia had fulfilled its "moral and international obligation."

PHOTO GALLERY: The 24 hours leading up to Ratko Mladic's arrival at The Hague to face trial for genocide and other alleged war crimes.

"With the extradition of Ratko Mladic to The Hague, [the] Republic of Serbia has fulfilled [a] moral and international obligation and we have proved that we meet our commitments," Malovic said. "Our action represents a clear confirmation that Serbia is sincerely devoted towards completing its cooperation with the [International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia]."

Hero To Some

For years, experts have speculated that ultranationalist factions within Serbia were harboring Mladic.

He is still considered a hero by some, including Bosnian Serb Nenad Batkovic, a former soldier during the Balkan wars who joined thousands of Mladic supporters for a rally in Banja Luka, the capital of Bosnia's Serbian entity, on May 31.

"Mladic is a symbol of freedom for me," Batkovic said. "Mladic is an invincible Serb hero. He is an immortal for the Serb Republic. We will not give up on him. Long live Ratko Mladic!"

Mladic's capture had long been declared by European officials a prerequisite for Serbia to achieve further European integration.

After Serbian special forces apprehended Mladic last week, EU enlargement commissioner Stefan Fuele said that the arrest removed "a great obstacle on the Serbian road to the European Union."

WATCH: Many people in Bosnia welcomed the arrest of Ratko Mladic, the man believed responsible for the worst massacre of the Balkan wars of the 1990s. But relatives of the victims of the Srebrenica killings have found little cause for celebration, even as they welcome the chance to see justice served (video by RFE/RL's Balkan Service).

Little Joy In Srebrenica At Mladic's Arrest
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Justice Minister Malovic said the capture would also have regional benefits.

"Bringing Mladic to justice, it is a satisfaction to the victims and families of all who have been victims of the crimes for which he has been charged before the ICTY," she said. "At the same time, this act represents a message relevant [to] the process of reconciliation in the region."

Far From Over

While international prosecutors say there is ample evidence to convict Mladic, ICTY spokeswoman Jelacic told Reuters that the court proceedings are bound to be complicated.

"It is still a very serious, very complex indictment with very complex charges," Jelacic said. "We now have two charges of genocide instead of one to cover the first year of the war, May 1992 to May 1993 in the first charge, and the second one, obviously, to cover the July 1995 genocide in Srebrenica."

Ratko Mladic (left) with former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic in 1995, near the height of the conflict.
The ICTY issued a statement after Mladic's capture in which it called "the arrest of Mladic...a milestone in the Tribunal's history and brings the institution closer to the successful completion of its mandate, with Goran Hadzic remaining the sole fugitive out of a total of 161 indictees."

The tribunal added that proceedings continue for 34 accused war criminals, and that 126 such proceedings have been concluded.

Another prominent war crimes defendant and former close ally of Mladic, onetime Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, was captured in 2008 and is standing trial before the ICTY.

While the UN tribunal prepares to hear the Mladic case, many questions remain on the ground in Serbia as to just how he managed to evade capture for so long.

Speaking to RFE/RL in Belgrade, Serbian sociologist Ivan Kuzminovic said that Mladic's capture -- and the boost it gives Serbia in the eyes of the international community -- should not distract from the need to answer those questions.

"This is a kind of reality show which is produced without any funds, and it goes on and on," Kuzminovic said. "The goal [of that show] is to avoid the real questions like this: Where was Ratko Mladic for the last five or six years? Who was protecting him? Who killed the conscripts in the Topcider barracks [in Serbia, where some believed Mladic had previously been hiding]? And what was the role of the Serbian state in providing protection for Mladic?"

In announcing Mladic's capture last week, Serbian President Boris Tadic said a search was under way for "all of those who helped Mladic and other fugitive war crimes suspects" to evade capture -- including, potentially, government officials.

written by Richard Solash in Washington with Milos Teodorovic of RFE/RL's Balkans Service; additional wire reporting

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UNICEF Warns That Millions In Pakistan Still Lack Safe Water Following Floods

A Pakistani man drinks water from a hand-pump in a flooded area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. (file photo)

The United Nations children's agency UNICEF says that six months after catastrophic floods struck Pakistan, more than 10 million people, including children, living in flood-affected areas still have no access to safe drinking water.

UNICEF said in a statement on March 21 that the lack of clean water is forcing many families with no alternative but to drink and use "potentially disease-ridden water."

The prolonged lack of access to safe drinking water and sewage systems, along with the continued proximity of vulnerable families to bodies of stagnant water, are contributing to the widespread outbreaks of waterborne diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, dengue, and malaria, UNICEF said, adding that unsafe water and poor sanitation are key underlying causes of malnutrition.

"Safe drinking water is not a privilege, it is a basic human right," said UNICEF's representative in Pakistan, Abdullah Fadil.

“Yet, every day, millions of girls and boys in Pakistan are fighting a losing battle against preventable waterborne diseases and the consequential malnutrition."

Last summer unprecedented monsoon rains and the flooding they sparked caused more than 1,500 deaths across Pakistan, including more than 550 children.

Many roads and bridges were washed away or are badly damaged by the disaster, leaving thousands of families with little access to food, safe water, and medicines.

In January donors pledged more than $9 billion to help Pakistan recover and rebuild following the devastating floods, which environmentalists and scientists blamed on climate change.

But the funds have been slow to come, with UNICEF saying in its statement that its current appeal of $173.5 million to provide life-saving support to women and children affected by the floods remains less than 50 percent funded.

"It is imperative that the voices and the needs of children in Pakistan are prioritized at all costs and that children are placed at the heart of all post-flood recovery and resilience plans," said Fadil.

Hungary Obstructs EU Statement On Putin's International Warrant

Hungary's move forced EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell to issue a personal statement instead, "taking note" of the ICC move.

Hungary has used its veto power to block a joint statement by European Union member states on the arrest warrant issued by the International Criminal Court (ICC) against Russian President Vladimir Putin, Bloomberg reported on March 21, quoting sources familiar with the matter. Hungary's move forced EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell to issue a personal statement instead, "taking note" of the ICC move. Hungarian Foreign Ministry spokesman Mate Paczolay denied the report, telling Bloomberg, "It's a lie that Hungary vetoed an EU statement on the ICC case." To read the original report by Bloomberg, click here.

Anti-Kremlin Movement Claims Role In Deadly Fire At Russian FSB Compound

Smoke from fire caused by an explosion rises above a building belonging to the border patrol section of Russia's FSB federal security service in the city of Rostov-on-Don, Russia, on March 16.

A Russian partisan group called Chyorny Most (Black Bridge) has claimed responsibility for a fire in the compound of the Federal Security Service (FSB) in the Russian city of Rostov-on-Don near the Ukrainian border that killed at least four people and injured five others on March 16. The group said on Telegram on March 21 that it was "a co-author" of the incident by contributing to its preparations and implementation. It did not name any others involved. Black Bridge positions itself as a guerrilla movement fighting against President Vladimir Putin and Moscow's full-scale aggression against Ukraine. To read the original story by RFE/RL's Caucasus.Realities, click here.

HRW Urges Pakistan To Drop Terrorism Charges Against Opposition Supporters

Police detain supporters of Pakistan's former Prime Minister Imran Khan in Islamabad on March 18.

Human Rights Watch (HRW) says authorities in Pakistan have committed abuses while confronting supporters of ex-Prime Minister Imran Khan during recent protests. Dozens of members of Khan's Tehrik-e Insaf party, including Khan, have been charged with terrorism offenses, criminal intimidation, and rioting. "The use of Pakistan’s vague and overbroad anti-terrorism provisions against opposition protesters is very worrying," said HRW's Patricia Gossman in a statement on March 21. "It is vitally important for the police to respect the right to peaceful assembly while holding those responsible for unlawful violence to account."

Police Raid Moscow Homes Of Employees Of Liquidated Human Rights Group Memorial

The former offices of the Memorial human rights center in Moscow. Russian authorities ordered the liquidation of Memorial in December 2021 under the controversial "foreign agent" law amid a continued crackdown on civil society.

Russian police on March 21 raided the homes of several employees of the liquidated prominent Memorial Human Rights Center, the rights group said on Twitter. A lawyer for the group told the Novaya gazeta publication that police searched the residences of senior figures of the group Oleg Orlov, Nikita Petrov, and Yan Rachinsky. Russian authorities ordered the liquidation of Memorial in December 2021 under the controversial "foreign agent" law amid a continued crackdown on civil society. Memorial was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize last year together with jailed Belarusian dissident Ales Byalyatski and Ukraine's Center for Civil Liberties. To read the original story by RFE/RL's Russian Service, click here.

Local Pakistani Official Among 11 People Killed In Attack On Car

Eleven people were killed on March 20 in an armed attack on a vehicle in Abbottabad, Pakistan. The dead included Atif Munsif Jadoon, chairman of the Havelian area of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province. Tariq Mazhar, a police official in Havelian, told RFE/RL that it is not known who carried out the attack. Another police official said the attack may have been caused by enmity within the Jadoon family. Pakistani media say four of the dead were bodyguards for the family, which has not commented on the attack. Jadoon was independently elected in last year's elections but later joined the Tehrik-e Insaf party. To read the full story by RFE/RL’s Radio Mashaal, click here.

U.S. Says China, Russia Blocking UN Action On North Korea

An image released by North Korea's Central News Agency on March 20 shows a missile being fired by the North Korean military at an undisclosed location.

The United States has accused China and Russia of shielding North Korea from any action by the UN Security Council for its unprecedented spate of intercontinental ballistic missile launches, which violate multiple UN resolutions and jeopardize international aviation and maritime safety. U.S. Ambassador Linda Thomas-Greenfield on March 20 told a council meeting that Chinese and Russian "obstructionism" was encouraging North Korea "to launch ballistic missiles with impunity" and advance its development of more sophisticated and dangerous weapons. To read the original story by AP, click here.


Intense Fighting In Eastern Ukraine As Japan's Prime Minister Heads To Kyiv

Local resident Vitaliy, 41, looks at a rocket explosion crater in his yard in Tsirkuny, Kharkiv region, on March 20.

Russia's sustained offensive in the eastern Ukrainian region of Donetsk intensified over the past 24 hours, the military said on March 21, as Japan's prime minister headed to Kyiv in a show of support for Ukraine's defensive war against Russia.

Ukrainian defenders repelled 120 attacks focused primarily on Bakhmut, which has been the focal point of a months-long raging battle that has prompted heavy losses to both sides, the General Staff of Ukraine's Armed Forces said in its daily report, adding that Russians also attempted advances in the directions of Avdiyivka, Lyman, Maryinka, and Shakhtarsk.

Live Briefing: Russia's Invasion Of Ukraine

RFE/RL's Live Briefing gives you all of the latest developments on Russia's full-scale invasion, Kyiv's counteroffensives, Western military aid, global reaction, and the plight of civilians. For all of RFE/RL's coverage of the war, click here.

Russian forces shelled civilian and infrastructure targets in 11 settlements along the line of contact, the Ukrainian military said.

Ukrainian forces also repelled Russian attacks in Kupyansk, in the northern region of Kharkiv, it said.

Japan's Foreign Ministry said on March 21 that Prime Minister Fumio Kishida will visit Kyiv for talks with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy, with Japanese broadcaster NHK showing Kishida boarding a train at the Polish border town of Przemysl.

Kishida, as a member of the Group of Seven nations, will voice solidarity and support for Ukraine following Russia's invasion more than a year ago, the ministry said.

Kishida will show "his respect for courage and perseverance of the Ukrainian people standing up to defend their homeland," the foreign ministry said in a statement.

Kishida's expected meeting with Zelenskiy comes as Russian President Volodymyr Putin is hosting his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping.

Meanwhile, two Russian strategic bomber planes flew over the Sea of Japan for more than seven hours, the Russian Defense Ministry announced on March 21.

The Tupolev Tu-95MS planes are capable of carrying nuclear weapons and Moscow regularly flies them over international waters in the Arctic, North Atlantic, and Pacific as a show of strength.

In Ukraine, Russian and Ukrainian forces have invested heavily in the battle for Bakhmut, even though analysts say the city carried little strategic value.

WATCH: A special RFE/RL investigation looks into allegations of Russian sabotage, cover-ups by Bulgarian authorities, and whether Bulgarian arms depots are still at risk as Russia's war in Ukraine enters a second year.

Bulgarian Blasts And Russia's War In Ukraine
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Ukrainian Deputy Defense Minister Hanna Malyar on March 20 highlighted the resistance put up by the defenders of Bakhmut in the face of an intensified Russian push for the city.

"No one believed that under such intense enemy attacks the city could be held for more than a week, two at most," she said. "But thanks to the courage and heroism of thousands of our soldiers, as well as the skillful leadership of our generals and officers, the defense of Bakhmut is holding and the possibilities have not yet been exhausted," Malyar added.

The head of Russia's Wagner mercenary group said his forces control "around 70 percent" of Bakhmut and are "continuing operations to complete the liberation of the city."

The claim could not be independently verified.

The Ukrainian Defense Ministry's Main Intelligence Directorate said on March 20 that the Russian-installed chief of a notorious detention center in the city of Nova Kakhovka in the Russian-occupied part of the Kherson region has been "liquidated."

The directorate said Serhiy Moskalenko, a native of the city who was accused of helping Russian troops detain and torture Ukrainians, was killed days earlier.

There have been several attacks, some deadly, against Ukrainian citizens who collaborated with Russian military forces after Moscow launched its ongoing invasion of Ukraine in February 2022.

In Brussels, EU foreign and defense ministers agreed on March 20 to provide 2 billion euros' ($2.13 billion) worth of artillery shells to Ukraine under a deal that will include joint EU ammunition purchases, while the United States announced $350 million in new military aid to Ukraine.

With reporting by Reuters, AFP, and dpa

Putin, Xi To Hold Second Day Of Moscow Talks With China's Proposal On Ukraine War On Agenda

Chinese President Xi Jinping (left) and his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin, hold a meeting at the Kremlin in Moscow on March 20.

Russian President Vladimir Putin and his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping, are due to hold a second day of talks in Moscow, where the Chinese leader is on his first visit in four years amid Moscow's deepening international isolation over its invasion of Ukraine.

Putin and Xi called each other "dear friend" and exchanged compliments at the Kremlin as they smiled and shook hands at the start of the first day of talks on March 20.

Live Briefing: Russia's Invasion Of Ukraine

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The two made brief statements at the start of their first meeting, which kicked off Xi's three-day visit that the two countries say is an opportunity to deepen their "no-limits friendship" and rebuff what they say is Washington's attempt to isolate them and hold back their development.

The meetings with Xi, who arrived earlier on March 20, gives a rare opportunity to Putin to claim that Russia is not completely walled off from the rest of the world despite his being targeted by an arrest warrant issued by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for alleged war crimes.

"We hope that the strategic partnership between China and Russia will on the one hand uphold international fairness and justice, and on the other hand promote the common prosperity and development of our countries,” Xi said as he and Putin began their meeting.

The meeting ended after more than four hours, including a dinner at which Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said Putin would likely offer Xi a "detailed explanation" of Moscow's actions in Ukraine. Broader talks between Russian and Chinese officials on a range of subjects are scheduled to take place on March 21, he added.

White House National Security Council spokesman John Kirby told reporters in Washington that Xi and Putin seem to be connected in "a marriage of convenience" rather than one of affection.

"These are two countries that have long chafed at U.S. leadership around the world," he said.

The White House remains concerned that China might provide lethal weapons to Russia, Kirby said.

He also said Washington encouraged Xi to press Putin directly "on the need to respect Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity" and said Xi should speak with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy about the impact of the war on Ukraine.

Xi's visit comes just weeks after China announced a proposal for a political settlement in Ukraine that Western countries said echoes Russian talking points, including blaming the West for the unprovoked invasion. The Chinese plan called for a cease-fire and peace talks among other provisions.

Putin, speaking at the start of the meeting, welcomed China's plan.

"We are always open to negotiations," Putin told Xi. "We will certainly discuss all these issues, including your initiatives which we treat with respect, of course."

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Putin’s Arrest Warrant And Russia’s Influence
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U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken voiced skepticism over the proposal, warning it could be a "stalling tactic" to help Russia on the ground in Ukraine.

"The world should not be fooled by any tactical move by Russia, supported by China or any other country, to freeze the war on its own terms," Blinken told reporters at the State Department.

Blinken also denounced Xi's visit, saying the timing showed Beijing was providing Moscow with "diplomatic cover" to commit further crimes.

In an article published on March 20 in the Russian publication Russian Gazette, Xi said that China has remained "impartial" and “actively promoted peace talks” but presented no clear proposals in regard to its peace plan.

Ahead of the visit, Putin touted his relationship with Xi and boasted that Moscow-Beijing relations have never been stronger.

In a March 19 article for The People's Daily, the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, Putin tried to portray Russia and China as close allies united against U.S. hegemony and NATO expansion, including into the Asia-Pacific region.

Putin has tried to justify his war of aggression against Ukraine on various grounds, including claiming NATO expansion was a threat. In an attempt to connect their respective security concerns, Putin warned NATO was a threat to China as well.

In a statement published in Russian media ahead of the visit, Xi made only a thinly veiled mention of Russia's invasion of Ukraine, saying "there has been an all-round escalation of the Ukraine crisis."

With reporting by Reuters, AP, and AFP

Zelenskiy Notes Expanding Support For Creation Of Tribunal On Russian Aggression

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy delivers his nightly address on March 20.

The number of countries that support the creation of a UN-backed special tribunal to hold Russia accountable for its aggression against Ukraine is increasing, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy said on March 20.

Zelenskiy said in his evening address that he held conversations earlier in the day with Austrian Chancellor Karl Nehammer and Irish Prime Minister Leo Varadkar to thank them for joining an international group that is preparing the creation of the special tribunal.

Live Briefing: Russia's Invasion Of Ukraine

RFE/RL's Live Briefing gives you all of the latest developments on Russia's full-scale invasion, Kyiv's counteroffensives, Western military aid, global reaction, and the plight of civilians. For all of RFE/RL's coverage of the war, click here.

"The circle of partners who are ready to work together to punish Russia for aggression is inevitably expanding. And it makes the prospect of punishment more and more realistic," Zelenskiy said.

He said he also spoke about the special tribunal on March 20 in an address to a conference of European justice ministers in London.

"I appealed to the participants of the conference and called on them to support all elements of the international effort so that the aggressor would be accurately punished," he said.

The European Parliament in January adopted a recommendatory resolution on the creation of a special tribunal regarding the crime of Russian aggression against Ukraine. The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) voted unanimously one week later to establish the tribunal.

The chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), however, has said he opposes the EU proposal. Karim Khan said in December that his court is capable of effectively considering war crimes committed by Russia in Ukraine.

The ICC on March 17 issued a warrant against Russian President Vladimir Putin, accusing the Russian leader of personal responsibility for the abductions of children from Ukraine. The court also issued a warrant for the arrest of Maria Lvova-Belova, a Russian children's rights official who allegedly directs the removal of Ukrainian children to Russia.

The Kremlin dismissed the warrant, arguing that it is void because Russia is not in the ICC's jurisdiction. Ukraine is also not a member of the ICC.

Millions In Extra Funding Pledged For ICC Work In Ukraine

British Justice Secretary Dominic Raab said the countries "share the belief that President Putin and the wider leadership must be held to account." (file photo)

An international conference in London has raised 4 million pounds ($4.9 million) to support the International Criminal Court (ICC) in its investigations into alleged war crimes in Ukraine. Justice ministers from over 40 countries met in London on March 20 after the court issued an arrest warrant for Russian President Vladimir Putin, accusing him in the abduction of children from Ukraine. British Justice Secretary Dominic Raab said the countries "share the belief that President Putin and the wider leadership must be held to account," adding, "Let's make sure that we back up our words with deeds." To read the original story by AP, click here.

Iran's Protest Anthem Played At White House Norouz Celebration

First lady Jill Biden accepts the award for best song for social change on behalf of Shervin Hajipour for Baraye at the 65th annual Grammy Awards on February 5.

A video of Iranian singer Shervin Hajipour performing the protest anthem Baraye played on March 20 at a White House celebration marking Norouz, the Persian New Year. The video was played just before President Joe Biden and first lady Jill Biden hosted the event. Biden told the audience that the traditional New Year inspired "hope for women of Iran who are fighting for their human rights and fundamental freedoms." The song instantly became associated with the political upheaval in Iran sparked by the death of Mahsa Amini while in custody for an alleged violation of Iran's hijab law.

EU Extends Iran Sanctions To Judges, Clerical Council

European ministers agreed to add eight Iranians and one of the Tehran government's most powerful bodies to EU sanctions lists, alleging human rights violations. The individuals -- including clerics, judges, and a broadcaster -- are accused of playing leading roles in Iran's crackdown on anti-government protests. The EU said it was in particular "sanctioning members of the judiciary responsible for handing down death sentences in unfair trials and for the torturing of convicts." The government institution, the Supreme Council of Cultural Revolution, was said to have "promoted several projects undermining the freedom of girls and women and discriminating against minorities."

Iranian Teachers' Union Warns Government Over Failing To Meet Its Demands

In recent years, Iranian teachers have taken to the streets across the country to demand better pay and working conditions.

A teachers' union in Iran has warned the government that if its demands are not met, its members will take to the streets in May, adding to the social and economic unrest that has plagued the country for almost a year.

The Coordinating Council of Teachers' Syndicates said in a statement on March 19 that imprisonment, dismissal, deportation, and court sentences have failed to deter teachers from their desire to accompany the people of Iran in the direction of fundamental changes in the Islamic republic.

"The tyranny can no longer stand against The Power of Powerless", the statement added, referring to a political essay written by the Czech communist-era dissident Vaclav Havel.

In recent years, Iranian teachers have taken to the streets across the country to demand better pay and working conditions. In response, the authorities have summoned, detained, and jailed a growing number of protesters and activists, actions that have failed to stop the rallies.

The statement, published just ahead of the beginning of the Persian New Year on March 21, referred to the last year as "a year full of glory and complaints" and added that "the stance of teachers and students together will promise days full of awareness."

Unrest has rattled Iran since last summer in response to declining living standards, wage arrears, and a lack of welfare support. Labor law in Iran does not recognize the right of workers to form independent unions.

Adding to the dissent, the death in September of 22-year-old Mahsa Amini while in police custody for allegedly wearing a head scarf improperly breathed new life into demonstrations, which officials across the country have since tried to quell with harsh measures.

The activist HRANA news agency said that more than 500 people have been killed during the unrest, including 71 minors, as security forces try to stifle widespread dissent.

Thousands have been arrested in the clampdown, with the judiciary handing down harsh sentences -- including the death penalty -- to protesters.

Written by Ardeshir Tayebi based on an original story in Persian by RFE/RL's Radio Farda

Blinken Offers U.S. Support To Facilitate Bilateral Peace Between Armenia, Azerbaijan

U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken (left) and Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinian (file photo)

U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken has offered support in facilitating bilateral peace discussions with Azerbaijan in a phone call on March 20 with Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinian.

The U.S. State Department said that in the call Blinken "reiterated U.S. support for direct talks and diplomacy to support a lasting and sustainable peace in the South Caucasus and stressed that there is no military solution."

The statement also said Blinken thanked Pashinian “for Armenia’s continued commitment to peace and encouraged concrete steps forward in finding solutions to outstanding issues.”

According to the press service of the Armenian prime minister's office, Blinken reiterated his call for the immediate unblocking of the Lachin Corridor, the mountain road that links Armenia and the breakaway enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh, and stressed that the United States is ready to continue supporting the process.

Pashinian and Blinken exchanged views on the prospects for the settlement of Armenian-Azerbaijani relations and the opening of communication ties in the region, according to the prime minister’s press service.

Pashinian also expressed concern over the recent aggressive rhetoric of Azerbaijan.

Tensions have flared recently as the Lachin Corridor has been blocked by government-backed Azerbaijani protesters since December 12.

The availability of food in Nagorno-Karabakh has become acute due to irregular deliveries, and prices for food and other goods have risen significantly. There have also been periodic interruptions in the supply of gas and electricity.

Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov discussed Nagorno-Karabakh at a meeting in Moscow with his Armenian counterpart, Ararat Mirzoyan. Lavrov said that the problem of the Lachin Corridor should be considered exclusively in the context of trilateral statements, and emphasized that each side has its own obligations.

He did not specify what Armenia should do in connection with the opening of the corridor but said the issues of rights and security guarantees for the people of Nagorno-Karabakh should be resolved between representatives of Karabakh and Baku.

Lavrov also lashed out at Brussels and Washington for "imposing their supervision" on the peace talks between Yerevan and Baku, accusing the West of "undisguised undermine the region's security architecture" and "tear Russia away" from the region.

Lavrov's meeting with Mirzoyan came days after Pashinian said he had complained to Russian President Vladimir Putin about "problems" with Russian peacekeepers in Karabakh, warning of an escalation in the region.

Baku and Yerevan have been locked in a conflict over Azerbaijan's breakaway region of Nagorno-Karabakh for years, and the United States and European Union have recently taken the lead role in peace talks between them.

Armenian-backed separatists seized the mainly Armenian-populated region from Azerbaijan during a war in the early 1990s that killed some 30,000 people.

Diplomatic efforts to settle the conflict brought little progress and the two sides fought another war in 2020 that lasted six weeks before a Russia-brokered cease-fire, which resulted in Armenia losing control over parts of the region and seven adjacent districts.

Armenia's Defense Ministry on March 12 rejected as "untrue" an accusation from Azerbaijan that Yerevan is transporting military equipment to the Nagorno-Karabakh region over ground routes bypassing the Lachin Corridor.

Nagorno-Karabakh is legally part of Azerbaijan.

Russia Adds Institute For Statecraft To 'Undesirable Organizations' List

The Russian Prosecutor-General's Office announced the decision on March 20. (file photo)

Russia has declared the Institute for Statecraft of Great Britain an "undesirable" organization amid an ongoing crackdown on international and domestic NGOs, civil society, and independent journalists. The Prosecutor-General's Office announced the decision on March 20, saying that the group's activities pose a “threat to the basis of [Russia's] Constitutional order, territorial integrity, and security." The "undesirable organization" law, adopted in 2015, was part of a series of regulations pushed by the Kremlin which squeezed many nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations that received funding from foreign sources. To read the original story by RFE/RL's Russian Service, click here.

EU Member States Agree To Send 1 Million Ammunition Shells To Ukraine

Estonian Defense Minister Hanno Pevkur (file photo)

European Union member states have agreed to supply 1 million rounds of artillery ammunition to Ukraine, Estonian Defense Minister Hanno Pevkur said while attending a meeting with his EU counterparts in Brussels. "We have reached a political consensus to send to Ukraine one million rounds of 155-millimeter-caliber ammunition," he told reporters, adding that the shells would be sent within 12 months. "There are many, many details still to (be) solved but for me, it is most important that we conclude these negotiations and it shows me one thing: If there is a will, there is a way." To read the original report by Reuters, click here.

Russia Launches Probe Of ICC After It Issues Arrest Warrant For Putin

International Criminal Court Prosecutor Karim Ahmad Khan (file photo)

Russia's Investigative Committee said on March 20 that it has started investigating International Criminal Court (ICC) Prosecutor Karim Ahmad Khan and the court's three judges after an arrest warrant was issued for Russian President Vladimir Putin last week. According to the committee, The Hague-based court’s officials are suspected of "preparation of an attack on a representative of a foreign state who is under international protection to complicate the international situation." The ICC issued the arrest warrant for Putin and his commissioner for children's rights on March 17. The two are accused of committing a war crime by unlawfully deporting Ukrainian children. To read the original story by RFE/RL's Russian Service, click here.

Iranian Rights Violations May Amount To Crimes Against Humanity, UN Expert Says

Javaid Rehman, special rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran (file photo)

Iran's authorities have committed violations in recent months that may amount to crimes against humanity, a UN-appointed expert told the Human Rights Council on March 20, citing cases of murder, imprisonment, enforced disappearances, torture, rape, sexual violence, and persecution. Iran has been swept by protests since the death of a young Iranian Kurdish woman, Mahsa Amini, in custody last September. Addressing the Geneva-based council, Javaid Rehman, special rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran, said he had evidence that Amini died "as a result of beatings by the state morality police." To read the original story by Reuters, click here.

Britain Sanctions More Iranian Officials Involved In Rights Abuses, Financing IRGC

British Foreign Secretary James Cleverly

Britain on March 20 sanctioned more Iranian officials responsible for financing the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) and for committing human rights abuses. They include five members of the body that manages the IRGC's investments and two IRGC commanders from Tehran and Alborz provinces who committed "gross human rights violations," the Foreign Office statement said. "Today we are taking action on senior leaders within the IRGC who are responsible for funneling money into the regime’s brutal repression.... We will continue to stand with the Iranian people as they call for fundamental change in Iran," Foreign Secretary James Cleverly said.

Jailed Iranian Activist Says 'Overthrow' Of The Regime Is 'Logical' Step

Iranian political activist Bahareh Hedayat

In a message on the eve of the Persian New Year to honor the hundreds of victims killed in recent nationwide protests, leading jailed Iranian political activist Bahareh Hedayat said the "overthrow" of the Islamic regime as a "logical" step following months of unrest.

In a letter written from the women's ward of Tehran's notorious Evin prison, Hedayat said on March 19 that while toppling the Islamic government was not the initial intent of the movement sparked by the death of Mahsa Amini while in police custody for an alleged violation of the hijab law, "this demand has become the objective on a scale that cannot be ignored.”

Hedayat, who is currently in prison for participating in the anti-government protests that erupted after Amini's death last September, listed the names of several protesters who were killed during the unrest, as well as four protesters who were sentenced to death and then executed as part of the judiciary's crackdown aimed at intimidating the demonstrators, thousands of whom have been arrested.

She added that the Islamic authority "has become the most immoral element of Iranians' daily lives and its survival is a denial of our survival, our children's survival, and our land. Therefore, the logic of overthrow is still in place."

The letter emphasizes the protesters' determination to "take back Iran" after the death of Amini.

Along with the execution of four protesters, Iran's judiciary has handed several others death sentences after what rights groups and the U.S. government have called "sham trials."

The executions and death sentences are part of the government's brutal, and often violent, crackdown on demonstrators. Lawmakers have pushed for harsh punishments to try and quell what has become the biggest challenge to the country's leadership since the Islamic Revolution in 1979.

Hedayat is a student activist and women's rights campaigner in Iran who has been arrested and sentenced to long prison terms several times. Most recently, she was arrested on October 3 during the nationwide protests.

The activist HRANA news agency has said that more than 500 people have been killed during the unrest, including 71 minors, as security forces try to stifle widespread dissent.

Written by Ardeshir Tayebi based on an original story in Persian by RFE/RL's Radio Farda

Grenade Blast Kills Mother, Five Children In Central Afghanistan

Five children along with their mother were killed when a grenade exploded in Afghanistan’s central Ghor Province, local officials said on March 20. Abdulhai Zaeem, the provincial director of information and culture, told the dpa news agency that the incident happened on March 19 in the provincial capital Firozkoh, while the children were playing with a hand grenade inside their house. Unexploded military supplies left from decades of war often cause casualties among children in Afghanistan. On March 17, two children were killed and two others wounded when they were hit by an unexploded mortar shell in Logar Province.

Kazakh Ruling Party Dominates Vote, OSCE Sees Some Progress, Some Candidates Cry Foul

Former Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev votes in Astana during his country's parliamentary elections, which were held on March 19.

ALMATY, Kazakhstan -- The ruling Amanat party appears to have won a majority of seats in a general election in Kazakhstan that international observers said showed some progress over previous votes while a number of opposition politicians claimed that the balloting was unfair.

Preliminary official results are expected from the Central Election Committee on March 20, a day after exit polls said Amanat had taken about 53 percent of the votes cast for the 98 seats in the lower house. At least three other parties surpassed the 5 percent threshold in order to enter parliament, according to the polls, with one showing as many as six parties winning seats.

Slightly more than half of the 12 million eligible voters went to the polls, according to the Central Election Committee. The parliamentary elections took place at the same time as local elections across the vast, oil-rich country and complete a political cycle after bloody unrest last year left at least 238 people dead.

“Democracy is a process that requires constant attention and dedication. We have noted some welcome improvements, including related to election laws, but Kazakhstan will only achieve the stated political goal of democratic development if far-reaching reforms continue,” Irene Charalambides, special coordinator and leader of the short-term observers from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), said on March 20.

“In particular, greater attention to protecting everyone’s fundamental freedoms is needed. Most notably, the restrictive media space and limited campaign coverage did not match candidates’ efforts to engage in a more dynamic contest,” she added.

The vote follows a referendum in June that marked the end of special privileges for the country's former longtime leader Nursultan Nazarbaev and snap presidential elections in November that handed 69-year-old incumbent Qasym-Zhomart Toqaev a fresh seven-year presidential term.

The early elections were the first since 2004 in which candidates without party affiliations could stand for seats in the lower house, called the Mazhilis, as part of a package of electoral reforms initiated by Toqaev in the wake of the unrest in January 2022.

But only 29 of the parliament’s seats are available to the single-mandate candidates, with the rest reserved for party list candidates.

Several candidates in the country's largest city, Almaty, said on March 20 that they would not recognize the results because of "various violations" of voting laws.

Journalist and activist Inga Imanbai told reporters at a news conference with two other independent candidates to the parliament and a candidate to Almaty city council, that a court appeal would be launched because "the votes of independent candidates were stolen."

The four listed various violations, including the improper counting of ballots and government pressure on public employees to vote for certain parties.

"I went to the elections with hope. But I was wrong. However, we will continue to fight for our rights," said Ravqat Mukhtarov, who was a candidate to the Almaty municipal council.

The return of single-mandate district races added some dynamism to a vote dominated by system candidates in a country where no elections have been deemed free or fair by international election monitors since Kazakhstan gained independence more than 30 years ago.

Still, several opposition-minded figures were excluded from races at the parliamentary and city council level on administrative pretexts, while others complained of government pressure on their campaigns.

Of the seven parties that competed, the most well-established was Amanat, a renamed version of the Nur Otan party bossed by octogenarian Nazarbaev, who remained powerful even after stepping down and allowing Toqaev to succeed him in 2019.

The OSCE noted that "limits on the exercise of constitutionally guaranteed fundamental freedoms remain and some political groups continue to be prevented from participating as political parties in elections."

While the voting "was organized in a smooth manner overall," the OSCE said "significant procedural irregularities were observed."

“The increased competition, particularly with self-nominated candidates, is a significant development. However, legal and practical hurdles continue to detract from a fully open race among equals,” said Reinhold Lopatka, the leader of the delegation from the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly.

“In the future, the publication of results for each polling station will be important for improved transparency and public confidence.”

Last year’s crisis effectively ended the political career of Nazarbaev, who relinquished his remaining positions to Toqaev, while denying rumors of a rift with his protege.

Russian Justice Ministry Requests Disbandment Of Moscow-Based SOVA Analytical Center

The SOVA center primarily carries out sociological research on nationalism and racism in Russia. (file photo)

The Moscow-based SOVA analytical center said on March 20 that Russia's Justice Ministry has asked a court to disband the think tank as a crackdown on providers of independent information continues. According to SOVA, the ministry's March 10 request was based on allegations that the organization had violated its charter by organizing or taking part in 24 events held outside of its place of registration, which is Moscow. Sova said it will appeal the move. The SOVA center conducts sociological research mostly focusing on nationalism and racism in the Russian Federation.


Rights Group Says Jailed Belarusian RFE/RL Journalist Losik 'Attempted Suicide'

Ihar Losik

The Minsk-based Vyasna (Spring) rights group has cited several sources as saying that jailed RFE/RL journalist Ihar Losik has been taken to a prison medical facility after being found with "cuts to his hands and neck."

The human rights group said on March 20 that Losik was "rescued" after what it characterized as an "attempted suicide," though it was not clear how or to what extent Losik was injured or when the incident occurred. His parents told RFE/RL that, without explanation, they had stopped receiving letters from him more than a month ago.

According to Vyasna, Losik, who on March 21 will have been behind bars for 1,000 days, was in a punitive solitary confinement holding a hunger strike in correctional camp No. 1 in the city of Navapolatsk in the country's northeast when he was found with the wounds.

Losik was sentenced to 15 years in prison in December 2021 on several charges, including "organizing mass riots, incitement to social hatred," and several other charges that remain unclear.

The journalist has maintained his innocence and calls all charges against him politically motivated.

The husband of exiled Belarusian opposition leader Svyatlana Tsikhanouskaya, Syarhey Tsikhanouski, as well as four other bloggers and opposition politicians and activists, were sentenced to lengthy prison terms along with Losik at the time.

In January, Losik's wife, Darya Losik, was sentenced to two years in prison on a charge of facilitating extremist activity. The charge stemmed from her interview to the Poland-based Belsat television channel, which has been officially labeled as an extremist group by Minsk.

The couple's 4-year-old daughter, Paulina, is currently in the custody of Darya Losik's parents.

Ihar Losik's parents told RFE/RL on March 20 that 10 days ago their son's lawyer was not allowed to meet his client in the prison.

The lawyer, whose name has not been made public, said he was told he was not allowed to see Losik on March 10 because his client did not apply in advance for the meeting and was supposedly working in the prison and could not be excused.

Ihar Losik's father, Alyaksandr Losik, told RFE/RL that he was currently discussing the situation with the lawyer, with whom he plans to go to Navapolatsk to try to see his son and find out what really happened to him.

It is unclear if Alyaksandr Losik and the lawyer will be allowed to meet with the imprisoned journalist, who has been recognized as a political prisoner by human rights organizations.

The United States has called for the immediate and unconditional release of Ihar and Darya Losik, while RFE/RL President Jamie Fly has also demanded the couple's immediate release and condemned their imprisonment.

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