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Ukraine Investigates Tymoshenko In Murder Case

Yulia Tymoshenko was jailed for seven years
A senior Ukrainian prosecutor says authorities are investigating whether imprisoned former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko was involved in a contract-style killing, AP reports.

The announcement was made in a televised statement late on October 28 by Deputy Prosecutor-General Renat Kuzmin.

Kuzmin said prosecutors are investigating claims that Tymoshenko was involved in the murder of a lawmaker and businessman in 1996.

Tymoshenko's office denied the new allegations.

Earlier this month, Tymoshenko was sentenced to seven years in prison on charges of abuse of office.

Western nations criticized Tymoshenko's jailing as politically motivated.

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Britain Announces New Russia Sanctions List That Includes Potanin And Putin's Cousin

Billionaire Vladimir Potanin (right) and Russian President Vladimir Putin (file photo)

The United Kingdom has announced new sanctions aimed at Russian President Vladimir Putin's inner circle, including his close ally Vladimir Potanin, the country's second-wealthiest man with an estimated net worth of more than $30 billion.

The British Foreign Office said in a statement on June 29 that Potanin "continues to amass wealth as he supports Putin’s regime, acquiring Rosbank, and shares in Tinkoff Bank in the period since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine."

The sanctions include an asset freeze, travel ban, and transport measures that make it a criminal offence for any Russian aircraft to fly or land in the United Kingdom, and give the government powers to remove aircraft belonging to designated Russian individuals and entities from the U.K. aircraft register, even if the sanctioned individual is not on board.

The statement added that Anna Tsivileva, Putin’s cousin and president of the prominent Russian coal mining company, JSC Kolmar Group, has also been sanctioned. Tsivileva’s husband, Sergey Tsivilev, is the governor of the coal-rich Kemerovo region.

The couple have "significantly benefitted" from their relationship with Putin. JSC Kolmar Group is also being sanctioned, the statement said.

"As long as Putin continues his abhorrent assault on Ukraine, we will use sanctions to weaken the Russian war machine. Today’s sanctions show that nothing and no one is off the table, including Putin’s inner circle," the statement quoted a government spokesperson as saying.

The statement said that the British government is also sanctioning a group of Russian individuals and companies for their involvement in "repressing civilians and supporting" the regime of Bashar al-Assad in Syria -- "exposing Russia’s malign activity across the globe."

Since Moscow launched its invasion of Ukraine on February 24, Britain has sanctioned more than 1,000 people and over 120 businesses.

Kyrgyz TV Station Director Detained Over Report On Ukraine War Faces Additional Charge

Taalaibek Duishembiev's pretrial detention has been extended until at least August 3. (file photo)

BISHKEK -- The director of the NEXT television channel in Kyrgyzstan, who is currently under arrest over the airing of a controversial report in which an interviewee alleged the existence of an agreement between Bishkek and Moscow to send troops to assist Russian armed forces in the war against Ukraine, now faces an additional charge.

Taalaibek Duishembiev's lawyer, Timur Sultanov, said on June 29 that his client faces another charge of inciting ethnic hatred over an unspecified report posted on Instagram in early March.

A day earlier, a court in Bishkek extended Duishembiev's pretrial detention until at least August 3.

Duishembiev was arrested and charged with inciting interethnic hatred in early March.

The initial charge stemmed from a report by the channel that quoted the exiled former chief of the Committee for National Security of neighboring Kazakhstan, Alnur Musaev, as saying that Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan had agreed to support Moscow's unprovoked invasion of Ukraine by sending troops to help Russia.

NEXT officials have insisted the report was balanced as it quoted Musaev directly while giving other people's views on the issue as well.

There has been no evidence of Tajik or Kyrgyz troops fighting in Ukraine since the invasion was launched on February 24.

The Kyrgyz Foreign Ministry has rejected the report and called on local media outlets to base their reporting on the ongoing war in Ukraine solely on official government statements.

Domestic and international human rights organizations have demanded Duishembiev's release, saying that his arrest violates freedom of expression.

Biden Says U.S. To Strengthen European Posture In Face Of Russian Aggression

U.S. President Joe Biden (left) with NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg at the alliance's summit in Madrid on June 29.

President Joe Biden says the United States will change its military posture in Europe because of threats resulting from Russia's invasion of Ukraine.

Speaking as he was greeted by NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg at a summit of the alliance on June 29, Biden said the United States would raise the number of destroyers it has in Spain from four to six. He also said Washington will send two additional F-35 squadrons to Britain and establish a 5th Army headquarters in Poland.

The alliance is needed more today "than it ever has been," Biden said, adding that NATO will be "strengthened in all directions across every domain -- land, air and sea."

Moscow-Imposed Administration Plans Referendum In Ukraine's Kherson On Joining Russia

Kherson has been fully under Russian control since early March. (file photo)

The Moscow-installed military administration ruling the area around the occupied Ukrainian city of Kherson said it is preparing to hold a referendum on joining Russia.

"Yes, we are preparing for a referendum -- and we will hold it," Kirill Stremoussov, the deputy head of Kherson's military and civil administration, said in a video published on Telegram.

Stremoussov said Kherson should become "a full-fledged member" of Russia.

Russian-installed officials said earlier that their security forces had detained Kherson Mayor Ihor Kolykhayev on June 28 after he refused to follow Moscow's orders. A local official said the mayor was kidnapped.

Kherson, an important port on the Black Sea, has been fully under Russian control since early March, just weeks after Moscow launched its unprovoked invasion of Ukraine.

Russian Missile Strike Kills At Least Three In Mykolayiv Residential Building

The aftermath of a deadly missile strike in Mykolayiv on June 29.

A missile strike killed at least three people in a residential building in the southern Ukrainian city of Mykolayiv on June 29 in an attack that Russia said was meant to destroy a training base for foreign fighters.

Mykolayiv Mayor Oleksandr Senkevych said eight Russian missiles had struck the city, including an apartment block. Photographs showed smoke billowing from a four-story building with its upper floor partly destroyed.

The Russian Defense Ministry said in a statement quoted by TASS that its forces carried out strikes on a military training base for "foreign mercenaries" near Mykolayiv.

Mykolayiv, a river port and shipbuilding center just off the Black Sea, has been a Ukrainian stronghold against Russia's westward push in the direction of Odesa.

The Mykolayiv strike took place just two days after Russia hit a commercial center in Kremenchuk in central Ukraine, killing at least 18 people. Dozens of people were still missing on June 29.

Russian Blogger Finally Allowed To Enter Georgia, Immediately Flies From Tbilisi To Lithuania

Russian blogger Insa Lander, aka Insa Oguz (file photo)

A blogger from Russia's North Caucasus facing terrorism charges that she says are an attempt to stop her investigative reporting has been allowed to enter Georgia after being stranded for more than two weeks in a neutral zone at the Russian-Georgian border.

Insa Lander, also known as Insa Oguz, told RFE/RL on June 29 that she had gone to Georgia and then flew on to Lithuania after Georgian authorities allowed her to enter the country on July 27.

Lander, who fled her native Kabardino-Balkaria region on June 12, was stuck in a neutral segment of the border as Georgian authorities refused to allow her to enter the country, saying she had given "controversial information about the goal of her visit to the country." They never explained what that meant.

Amid an outcry by human rights groups, Georgia's Foreign Ministry then tried to justify its hesitance to allow the blogger to enter the country by saying that she was facing terrorism-related charges at home.

Lithuania's ambassador to Tbilisi, Andrius Kalindra, said at the time that Vilnius was ready to provide Lander with a visa if she was allowed to enter Georgia.

Lander, who resided in Moscow for many years, was arrested in Kabardino-Balkaria in December when she came to visit relatives. She was charged with recruiting a person to a terrorist group. The charge was based on an online chat she had with an acquaintance.

Lander and her supporters have rejected the charge, saying the case was fabricated to stop her from investigating possible corruption at a charity foundation led by a top official in Kabardino-Balkaria.


At Start Of Crucial NATO Summit, Biden Says U.S. Boosting Presence In Europe

NATO leaders pose for a group photo in Madrid on June 28.

President Joe Biden says the United States is strengthening its military presence in Europe in the face of new threats posed by Russia's invasion of Ukraine as the alliance looks to adopt a new strategic blueprint that is crucial for its future.

Biden, speaking at a crucial NATO summit in Madrid on June 29, said the alliance will be "strengthened in all directions across every domain -- land, air and sea."

Live Briefing: Russia's Invasion Of Ukraine

RFE/RL's Live Briefing gives you all of the latest developments on Russia's ongoing invasion, how Kyiv is fighting back, the plight of civilians and refugees, and Western aid and reaction. For all of RFE/RL's coverage of the war, click here.

Biden, who was meeting with the NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg, said Washington was boosting the fleet of U.S. naval destroyers from four to six in Rota, Spain, and would establish a permanent headquarters in Poland for the 5th Army Corps.

It will also send an "additional rotational brigade" to Romania, consisting of "3,000 fighters and another 2,000 personnel combat team," and will enhance rotational deployments in the Baltic countries, Biden said.

Two additional squadrons of the F-35 stealth plane will be sent to Britain and more air defense and other capabilities will be placed in Germany and in Italy.

"We're sending an unmistakable message...that NATO is strong, united and the steps we're taking during this summit are going to further augment our collective strength," Biden said.

"We mean it when we say an attack against one is an attack against all," he told reporters at the start of a working session of NATO leaders.

Stoltenberg told Biden that the increase demonstrated the American president's "decisive leadership."

Biden's announcement was hailed by the Polish president's foreign policy adviser Jakub Kumoch.

"It is a success which comes from long and consistent negotiations on this matter and, at the same time, a very clear sign that the Americans intend to increase, not decrease, their presence in Poland," Kumoch told Reuters.

Stoltenberg said earlier on June 29 that NATO faces its biggest challenge since World War II amid Russia's war in Ukraine, adding that Moscow poses a direct threat to the security of the alliance's member states.

Stoltenberg has said the allies are meeting “in the midst of the most serious security crisis we have faced,” adding, “this will be a historic and transformative summit.”

"We'll state clearly that Russia poses a direct threat to our security," Stoltenberg said.

Stoltenberg said NATO is going to agree on deterrence, on being able to deploy more combat formations, and getting more pre-positioned equipment in Eastern Europe by next year.

Stoltenberg also said he expected a swift ratification of Sweden and Finland's accession to the military alliance after Turkey lifted its objections to the two Nordic states' membership.

"We will make a decision at the summit to invite Sweden and Finland to become members, that's unprecedented quick," he told reporters in Madrid on June 29. Both countries applied for membership of the alliance in mid-May.

"After invitation, we need a ratification process in 30 parliaments," he added. "That always takes some time but I expect also that to go rather quickly because allies are ready to try to make that ratification process happen as quickly as possible."

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy is expected to make a speech via videoconference at the summit later on June 29.

On the first day of the summit, Turkey agreed to lift its opposition to NATO membership bids filed by Finland and Sweden in the wake of Russia's invasion of Ukraine.

Finland and Sweden last month moved to abandon their nonaligned status and applied to join the military alliance, but their bids were held back by Turkey, which has accused both nations, particularly Sweden, of offering a safe haven to Kurdish militants who have been waging an insurgency against the Turkish state.

With reporting by Reuters, AP, AFP, and Time

Situation In Lysychansk 'Very Difficult' As Ukrainian President Accuses Russia Of Intentionally Targeting Civilians

A man walks past a barricade made with destroyed police cars in the besieged Ukrainian city of Lysychansk.

Russian forces have been pounding Lysychansk indiscriminately, with regional officials describing the situation as "very difficult" in the last Ukrainian holdout in the east as President Volodymyr Zelenskiy accused Russia of intentionally targeting civilians in Kremenchuk, where at least 18 people were killed and dozens are still missing after a missile attack on a crowded commercial center.

"Russian missile hit this location precisely. De-li-be-ra-te-ly.... It is clear that Russian killers received those exact coordinates," Zelenskiy said in his regular evening video address. "They wanted to kill as many people."

Separately, Zelenskiy called for the United Nations to send a special representative or the secretary-general to the site of the missile strike. He made the comment on June 28 in a virtual address to an emergency session of the UN Security Council that Kyiv requested after the missile strike.

Authorities said around 36 people were still missing after the June 27 strike. Russia has denied it targeted the shopping mall, saying its missiles were fired at a weapons depot.

Stories Of Heroism At Ukrainian Shopping Center Hit By Russian Missile
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Britain's Ministry of Defense said in its daily intelligence bulletin on June 29 that there is a "realistic possibility" the missile strike on the Kremenchuk shopping center was intended to hit a nearby infrastructure target.

It said that Russia’s lack of accuracy in conducting long-range strikes has previously resulted in mass civilian casualty incidents, including at the Kramatorsk railway station on April 9.

The British report said it was "highly likely" that Russian strikes will continue to cause further civilian casualties given Russia’s shortage of more modern precision-strike weapons and the professional shortcomings of their targeting planners.

Live Briefing: Russia's Invasion Of Ukraine

RFE/RL's Live Briefing gives you all of the latest developments on Russia's ongoing invasion, how Kyiv is fighting back, the plight of civilians and refugees, and Western aid and reaction. For all of RFE/RL's coverage of the war, click here.

In Lysychansk, a key battleground in Moscow's attempt to conquer Ukraine's industrial heartland of Donbas, Russian forces are trying to surround the city, Ukraine's armed forces general staff said on June 29.

British intelligence said that Russian troops continue to make progress in their efforts to encircle Lysychansk.

It said that, since June 25, Russian forces have advanced a further 2 kilometers near the Lysychansk oil refinery, south of the town.

The head of the military administration in Luhansk, where Lysychansk is situated, also reported increased military action.

"The Russians are using every weapon available to them...and without distinguishing whether targets are military or not -- schools, kindergartens, cultural institutions," Serhiy Hayday said.

He added that the situation in Lysychansk resembles that in its twin city Syevyerodonetsk where Russian forces started destrorying building after building. Syevyerodonetsk fell to Russia on June 25.

"The situation in Lysychansk is very difficult," Hayday said on television.

"Everything is being destroyed. This is a scorched-earth policy."

The mayor of the southern city of Mykolayiv, Oleksandr Senkevych, said a multistory residential building had been hit on June 29 in the morning and rescuers were working there.

In the Dnipropetrovsk region, toward Ukraine's east, the head of the regional administration, Valentyn Reznychenko, said the bodies of a man and a woman had been found buried under the rubble of a building that had been hit by a Russian missile the previous day..

He had earlier said that Russia had fired six missiles on June 28 in the region, three of which were shot down.

Separately, Russian-installed officials said their security forces had detained Kherson city mayor Ihor Kolykhayev on June 28 after he refused to follow Moscow's orders. A local official said the mayor was kidnapped.

Kherson, a port city on the Black Sea, is located northwest of the Russian-annexed Crimean peninsula.

With reporting by Reuters, AP, AFP, dpa, CNN, and the BBC

Bulgaria Expels 70 Russian Embassy Staff Accused Of Working Against Sofia's Interests

Bulgarian Prime Minister Kiril Petkov told reporters that the Russian diplomats who had been expelled “worked against our interests."

Bulgaria has ordered 70 Russian diplomatic staff out of the country, claiming that they have been working against Sofia's interests.

Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Irena Dimitrova summoned Russian Ambassador Eleonora Mitrofanova on June 28 to inform her of the expulsions, a Foreign Ministry statement said.

The statement said the first reason for the expulsions was "reciprocity” and the second was because Bulgarian authorities have determined that the Russian officials' "activity” is incompatible with the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations.

Prime Minister Kiril Petkov told reporters on the sidelines of a National Assembly session that the diplomats “worked against our interests."

"I want to tell all foreign countries, not only Russia, that all those who work against the interests of Bulgaria will be sent back to the country they came from," Petkov was quoted as saying by state news agency BTA.

He declined to give more details about the Russians' activities, saying the information was confidential.

"I can say that most of them worked directly for foreign services and their diplomatic role was just a cover," Petkov said.

He added that the 70 people affected, who have been given until July 3 to leave, held various official roles in the Russian Embassy but performed uncharacteristic activities for their diplomatic positions.

The move is not meant as an aggression against the Russian people, Petkov said.

"It's just that when foreign governments try to work and interfere in Bulgaria's internal affairs, we have clear institutions that will counter this type of action. And on Sunday (July 3) we expect a full plane with 70 seats to go back to Moscow," Petkov added.

European countries have expelled hundreds of Russian diplomatic staff since Moscow launched its unprovoked war against Ukraine on February 24. Russia has reciprocated by sending home diplomats from numerous EU countries.

With reporting by Reuters and AFP

Wives Of Russian Officers Urge Buryatia Leader To Return Their Husbands From Ukraine

A screen grab of the video statement from the wives of Buryatia men who are serving in Ukraine.

More than a dozen women in Russia's Republic of Buryatia have recorded a video statement urging the head of the Siberian region to recall their husbands from Ukraine where they are serving with the Russian armed forces.

One of the women, Vera Partilkhayeva, told RFE/RL on June 28 that the women's husbands were deployed in what were officially called military drills in January. But since February, they have been taking part in what Russian officials call the "special military operation" in Ukraine.

"Since February 24, they have been taking part in the special operation. They have been exhausted both morally and physically. All of them have suffered light- and medium-level contusions," the women said in the video statement, adding that many of the men were sick due to their living conditions.

Partilkhayeva wrote on her social network accounts that region head Aleksei Tsydenov will be personally responsible for every death of local residents in the ongoing war in Ukraine.

According to her, the video statement was recorded by the wives of military personnel of the Fifth Tank Brigade of Tatsin. At least 30 officers and soldiers of that military unit have been confirmed killed in Ukraine.

The exact number of Russian troops killed in Ukraine in more than four months of the war remains unknown.

Ukrainian authorities claim that more than 35,000 Russian troops have been killed, while the Russian Defense Ministry last commented on the subject in March, saying that 1,351 of its personnel had died.

Putin Arrives In Tajikistan For First Stop On Trip To Central Asia

Tajik President Emomali Rahmon (right) greets his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin, in Dushanbe on June 28.

DUSHANBE -- Russian President Vladimir Putin has started a one-day visit to Tajikistan, where he is holding talks with his Tajik counterpart, Emomali Rahmon, as Russia's unprovoked invasion of Ukraine continues to raise concerns in Central Asia.

Rahmon greeted Putin at the Dushanbe international airport on June 28 and the two leaders immediately left for talks.

Rahmon's spokesman Abdufattoh Sharifzoda told RFE/RL that no documents will be signed during Putin's visit, the Russian president's first public foreign trip since the start of the war in February. Sharifzoda added that Putin is on a working trip and all talks will be held face-to-face.

Sharifzoda also said that the two presidents will discuss "bilateral ties, the development of cultural and economic relations, and regional and global issues, especially the situation in Afghanistan."

Putin aide Yury Ushakov was quoted by Russian media as saying that Putin and Rahmon will also discuss "issues related to military cooperation and Tajik migrant workers in Russia."

Ushakov said they also would discuss measures to improve security along Tajikistan's porous 1,357-kilometer border with Afghanistan.

Moscow has stationed about 7,000 troops from Russia’s 201st Motor Rifle Division at three facilities that are considered part of a Russian base in Tajikistan.

On July 29, Putin will leave Tajikistan for the Turkmen capital, Ashgabat, where he will attend a summit of countries bordering the Caspian Sea, which include Azerbaijan, Iran, and Kazakhstan.

Putin's visit to the two Central Asian nations comes days after he told another ally, Belarus's authoritarian ruler Alyaksandr Lukashenka, that Moscow will supply Minsk with an Iskander-M mobile missile system with a range of up to 500 kilometers as the standoff between Russia and the West over the war in Ukraine escalates.

Russia, Belarus, and Tajikistan, along with Armenia, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan, are members of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO).

Earlier this month, while attending an economic forum in St. Petersburg, Kazakh President Qasym-Zhomart Toqaev pushed back against Moscow's narrative of the invasion of Ukraine, rejecting recognition for "quasi-states" such as the regions in eastern Ukraine controlled by Russia-backed separatists.

He also vowed that Kazakhstan wouldn't break international sanctions imposed against Russia over its actions in Ukraine.

With reporting by AFP and AP

Moscow Court Fines Airbnb, Twitch, UPS, Pinterest For Refusing To Localize User Data

(file photo)

A court in Moscow has fined the holiday rental company Airbnb, video streaming service Twitch, United Parcel Shipping (UPS), and the Pinterest image sharing and social media service for failing to localize the storage of the personal data of their users amid a government campaign to gain more control over the Internet in Russia.

The Magistrates Court in Moscow’s Taganka district ordered Twitch, Airbnb, and Pinterest on June 28 to pay 2 million rubles ($37,500) each for failing to abide by a law that requires the local storage of user data. The court ordered UPS to pay a fine of 1 million rubles on the same charge.

President Vladimir Putin has accused international tech giants of flouting the country's Internet laws, including Moscow's efforts to force foreign firms to open offices in Russia.

In recent months, Moscow courts have fined Google, Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, Telegram, and TikTok over the personal data issue, as well as for refusing to delete content deemed to have been banned under Russian law.

Many critics say Russia's efforts to police online content have nothing to do with "Internet integrity" and instead they have accused the authorities of trying to impose more control over the media in the wake of Russia's ongoing unprovoked invasion of Ukraine.

Based on reporting by TASS and Interfax

New U.S. Sanctions Target Russian Defense Industry, Gold Imports

U.S. Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen

The United States on June 28 imposed sanctions on 70 entities, including Russian defense firm Rostec, and 29 individuals in a move that it said aimed to "strike at the heart of Russia’s ability to develop and deploy weapons."

The new sanctions, which also ban imports of Russian gold, were announced by the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) and they implement agreements reached during the Group of Seven (G7) summit this week.

Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen said in a statement that the United States reaffirmed its commitment to work with partners and allies “to impose additional severe sanctions in response to Russia’s war against Ukraine.”

“Broad multilateral commitments and actions by G7 members this week further cut off the Russian Federation’s access to technology that is critical to their military,” Yellen said. “Targeting Russia’s defense industry will degrade [President Vladimir] Putin’s capabilities and further impede his war against Ukraine, which has already been plagued by poor morale, broken supply chains, and logistical failures.”

The sanctions on Rostec announced on June 28 build on previously announced sanctions against the state aerospace and defense conglomerate. The Treasury Department said that Rostec's "management umbrella includes more than 800 entities across a wide range of sectors" and that all entities owned 50 percent or more by Rostec are blocked.

This includes United Aircraft Corporation, the maker of Russia's MiG and Sukhoi fighter jets. The Treasury Department said this aims to "weaken Russia's ability to continue its aerial assault on Ukraine."

The ban on gold imports, which the Treasury Department said is Russia's biggest nonenergy export, was also agreed by Britain, Canada, and Japan during the G7 summit.

In addition to targeting Rostec and other industries critical to the defense sector, the sanctions take aim at military units and officers implicated in human rights abuses in Ukraine, the OFAC said.

The Treasury Department's enforcement arm also issued a joint alert with the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security advising vigilance against Russian and Belarusian export control evasion, the statement said.

Separately, the U.S. State Department announced visa restrictions on more than 500 military officers "for threatening or violating Ukraine’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, or political independence."

The department has also taken steps to impose visa restrictions on 18 Russian nationals in relation to the suppression of dissent, including politically motivated detentions, Secretary of State Antony Blinken said in a statement.

Washington is also increasing tariffs on more than 570 groups of Russian products worth approximately $2.3 billion.

The U.S. Commerce Department took complementary actions, adding several entities to its so-called Entity List for continuing to do business with Russia even after its invasion of Ukraine.

The additions to the Entity List "demonstrate the United States will impose stringent export controls on companies, including those in third countries, in order to deny them access to items they can use to support Russia’s military and/or defense industrial base," Blinken said.

With reporting by AP, AFP and Reuters

Jailed Kyrgyz Ex-President Atambaev Acquitted In 2020 Mass Disorder Case

Former Kyrgyz President Almazbek Atambaev (right) in court on June 28.

BISHKEK -- A court in Bishkek has acquitted former Kyrgyz President Almazbek Atambaev in a case related to mass protests that swept the Central Asian nation in 2020.

The Birinchi Mai district court found Atambaev and his six co-defendants not guilty on June 28 of organizing and taking part in mass disorder, the illegal possession of firearms, and threatening law enforcement.

Earlier in the day, prosecutors asked the court to convict Atambaev and sentence him to 12 years in prison. They sought terms of between 7 and 9 years for his co-defendants.

Atambaev is currently serving an 11-year prison term he was handed in 2020 for his role in the illegal release of notorious crime boss Aziz Batukaev in 2013.

The anti-government protests in October 2020 were sparked by a controversial parliamentary election seen by many as rigged.

Atambaev was released during the protests and joined in them along with several other politicians. He was later rearrested and returned to prison.

The 65-year-old is currently involved in another trial that is linked to two days of violence at his compound near Bishkek sparked by his refusal to obey three summonses to appear at the Interior Ministry for questioning about Batukaev’s release.

Kyrgyz Ex-President Detained After Special-Forces Officer Dies In Raid On His Compound
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The 2019 standoff between security forces and his supporters resulted in the death of a senior security officer and more than 170 injuries -- 79 of them sustained by law enforcement officers.

In that case, the former president and 13 others are charged with murder, attempted murder, threatening or assaulting representatives of authorities, hostage taking, and the forcible seizure of power.

Earlier this month Atambaev was additionally charged with abuse of office over deadly ethnic clashes in 2010 that claimed almost 450 lives. At that time, Atambaev led an interim government following violent anti-government protests that toppled then President Kurmanbek Bakiev.

Russian Officials Detain Mayor Of Ukrainian City After He Refuses To Collaborate

Kherson Mayor Ihor Kolykhayev (file photo)

Russian officials occupying the Ukrainian city of Kherson have detained Mayor Ihor Kolykhayev after he refused to work with them.

Kolykhayev's adviser, Halyna Lyashevska, wrote on Facebook that officers of Russia's National Guard searched the mayor's office and detained him on June 28.

According to Lyashevska, Kolykhayev likely was arrested because of his open refusal to collaborate with the occupying Russian authorities.

The governor of the Kherson region, Hennadiy Lahuta, confirmed Kolykhayev’s detention.

No further details were immediately available.

After Russian troops took over the city of Kherson in early March, Kolykhayev remained there and continued to work as the mayor while refusing to cooperate with the occupying forces.

In late April, Russia appointed its own so-called heads of military-civilian administrations in the city and the areas around the Kherson region that Russian troops had taken over during their ongoing invasion of Ukraine.

Media reports in Ukraine said on June 28 that occupying Russian forces also detained an official in the Ukrainian city of Enerhodar in the Zaporizhzhya region last week.

Relatives Fear Tajik Activist Faces Torture, Prison At Home As Russia Considers Extradition

Emomali Kholov (right) with Izzat Amon

DUSHANBE -- Russian authorities have detained a Tajik activist residing in the Kursk region and plan to extradite him to Tajikistan, where he may face torture and imprisonment, his relatives and colleagues say.

Emomali Kholov's relatives and colleagues told RFE/RL that the 30-year-old father of 11 was detained on June 26 in the Kursk region.

Kholov's close associate, Suhrob Jahon, quoted his friend's lawyer as saying that Tajik authorities had requested Russian officials extradite the activist after a criminal case was launched against him in March 2021 on extremism charges.

Kholov used to work as a volunteer at the Center of Tajiks in Russia.

The center was led by Izzat Amon, before he was deprived of Russian citizenship and forced to return to Dushanbe in March 2021 at the request of Tajik authorities, who accused him of financial fraud.

Amon was found guilty and sentenced to nine years in prison in October. Earlier this month, a court in Dushanbe handed Amon an additional six years in prison on a separate fraud charge that his relatives have called politically motivated.

Activists and rights groups say President Emomali Rahmon, who has ruled Tajikistan since 1992, has used various levers of power to suppress rights groups and dissent.

Amon's nonprofit organization in Moscow helped Tajik migrant workers find jobs, obtain work and residency permits, and get legal advice.

It was shut down after his arrest and several of its employees and volunteers have complained of being put under pressure by Russian authorities since.

Russian Lawyer Detained After Criticizing Ukraine Shopping-Mall Strike

Dmitry Talantov (file photo)

The chairman of the attorneys chamber in Russia's Udmurtia region, Dmitry Talantov, has been detained after he criticized the government and military forces over a deadly strike on a shopping mall in the Ukrainian city of Kremenchuk.

Talantov wrote on Facebook that he was detained on June 28 and taken handcuffed to the Investigative Committee for questioning.

The Society of Russian Lawyers wrote on Telegram that Talantov was detained as he was trying to fly to Moscow.

No official reason has been given for Talantov's detention.

On June 27, when news of the deadly missile attack broke, Talantov condemned the strike, calling the Russian authorities "scumbags."

Talantov also is the lawyer for Ivan Safronov, a prominent former Russian journalist who is on trial in Moscow on a high-treason charge widely considered to be politically motivated.

At least 18 people died in the missile strike in Kremenchuk, which leaders of the Group of Seven (G7) called "a war crime."

Russia has denied it targeted the mall, saying it launched a "high-precision strike" on a nearby munitions depot and that subsequent explosions from the attack sparked the blaze at the shopping center.

G7 Leaders Wrap Up Summit Condemning Russian Invasion, Pledge Support For Ukraine

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy attends a working session of G7 leaders via video link in Kyiv on June 27.

Leaders of the Group of Seven (G7) advanced economies have condemned Russia's invasion of Ukraine as "illegal and unjustifiable," and pledged to hold an international conference to raise funds for the country's postwar reconstruction.

A final statement from the G7 meeting in Germany that ended on June 28 also addresses the issue of global food security, which has been shaken by Russia's blockade of Ukrainian ports, keeping grain stocks from one of the world's largest producers from being exported.

"We, the leaders of the Group of Seven...were joined by the leaders of Argentina, India, Indonesia, Senegal, and South Africa, as well as Ukraine," the statement says.

"We reemphasize our condemnation of Russia's illegal and unjustifiable war of aggression against Ukraine."

The three-day summit of leaders from the world's leading democracies has already pledged to keep sanctions on Russia for as long as necessary and to intensify international economic and political pressure on President Vladimir Putin and his supporters in ally Belarus.

By the end of the meeting, they had strengthened that pledge and condemned Russia for an "abominable" attack on a shopping center in central Ukraine, calling it a "war crime," while vowing Putin will "be held to account" for Moscow's actions.

Stories Of Heroism At Ukrainian Shopping Center Hit By Russian Missile
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"We are strongly committed to supporting Ukrainian reconstruction through an international reconstruction conference," the G7 said, adding that members had agreed to spend $4.5 billion on addressing food-security issues around the globe exacerbated by rising grain and food costs following Russia's invasion of Ukraine.

The White House added that the United States would pitch in $2.76 billion toward that effort, which will assist 47 countries and regional organizations dealing with food insecurity and malnutrition.

Officials have said during the summit that leaders of the major economies are working on plans to pursue a price cap on Russian oil, raise tariffs on Russian goods and impose other new sanctions, though no final deal was reached in Germany and further discussions beyond the summit are expected.

With reporting by Reuters, AFP, and AP

Belarus Adds Jailed Opposition Activist Tsikhanouski, RFE/RL Consultant Losik To Terrorist List

A popular video blogger, Syarhey Tsikhanouski intended to run for president but was disqualified and arrested before the vote in August 2020.

The Belarusian KGB has added 23 people to its terrorists list, including the jailed husband of opposition leader Svyatlana Tsikhanouskaya, Syarhey Tsikhanouski, and RFE/RL consultant Ihar Losik.

The KGB's June 28 move brings the total number of persons on its official registry of terrorists to 870.

Tsikhanouski and Losik were sentenced in December to 18 years and 15 years in prison, respectively, on charges of organizing mass disorder, inciting social hatred, impeding the activities of the Central Election Commission, and organizing activities that disrupted social order.

Both denied the charges, calling them politically motivated.

Rights groups consider them, and four other persons who were sentenced behind closed doors in the southeastern city of Homel, to be political prisoners.

“This escalation is an egregious abuse of the state’s authority and underlines the Lukashenka regime’s contempt for journalists who expose the truth," RFE/RL President Jamie Fly said in a statement, referring to authoritarian ruler Alyaksandr Lukashenka.

"We continue to demand Ihar’s immediate release from prison so he can be reunited with his wife and daughter,” Fly added.

The crackdown on the pro-democracy movement has intensified since mass protests erupted in the wake of Lukashenka’s August 2020 reelection, which has not been recognized by the opposition and the West.

A popular video blogger, Tsikhanouski intended to run against Lukashenka but was disqualified and arrested before the vote.

Tsikhanouskaya subsequently mobilized voters and won the election, according to the opposition and Western countries who say Lukashenka rigged the results.

Tsikhanouskaya has been living in Lithuania since fleeing Belarus due to concerns about her safety and that of the couple's two children.

Russia Places Sanctions On Biden's Wife, Daughter, Several Senators In Latest List

U.S. President Joe Biden (in front, from left), First Lady Jill Biden, their daughter, Ashley Biden, and granddaughters Finnegan and Naomi pose for a picture during a celebration of Independence Day in Washington on July 4, 2021.

Russia has added U.S. President Joe Biden's wife, Jill, and daughter, Ashley, to its list of Americans under sanctions in retaliation for Washington's moves against Russia over its war in Ukraine.

The Foreign Ministry in Moscow said in a statement on June 28 that 23 other academics and U.S. officials, including Republican Senate minority leader Mitch McConnell, and Senators Charles Grassley, Kirsten Gillebrand, Susan Collins, Ben Sass, and Martin Heinrich, were also added to the list.

"As a response to the ever-expanding U.S. sanctions against Russian political and public figures, 25 American citizens are included in the 'stop list' from among the senators responsible for the formation of a Russophobic narrative, participants in the so-called McFaul-Yermak group, which develops recommendations on anti-Russian restrictions, as well as members of the family of President Joe Biden," the statement said.

Those people on the list are banned from entering Russian territory.

The United States has led international efforts to impose far-reaching sanctions on Russia over its invasion of Ukraine, launched on February 24.

Washington and the European Union have imposed sanctions against individuals, including Russian President Vladimir Putin, his daughters, Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and members of his family, and several oligarchs linked to Putin.

They have also implemented crippling economic sanctions on Russia, such as cutting off much of its financial network from international transactions, freezing assets, and implementing a partial embargo on Russian oil imports.


Russian Opposition Politician Ilya Yashin Handed 15-Day Jail Term On Disobedience Charge

Ilya Yashin speaks with the Associated Press at a polling station during parliamentary elections in Moscow in September 2021.

MOSCOW -- Russian opposition politician Ilya Yashin has been sentenced to 15 days in jail after being convicted of being disobedient to police, a charge that he and his supporters denied.

Yashin said on Telegram that the Khamovniki district court in Moscow sentenced him on June 28, a day after he was detained while on a walk in a Moscow park with a friend.

"I am an opposition politician, an independent municipal lawmaker, a critic of [Russian President Vladimir] Putin, and an opponent of the war in Ukraine. This detention of mine is a tool to impose pressure on me," Yashin wrote, adding that he does not exclude that a criminal case may be launched against him after he serves his jail term, which has become a routine practice in the country after Russia launched its ongoing unprovoked invasion of Ukraine on February 24.

Journalist Irina Babloyan, who was with Yashin when he was detained, tweeted on June 28 that the accusation by police that he fought with them was untrue and that Yashin did not resist.

Yashin, 38, is an outspoken Kremlin critic. He was fined four times in recent weeks on charges of discrediting the Russian military over his open opposition to the war in Ukraine.

Another Jehovah's Witness Gets Prison Term In Siberia Amid Crackdown

For decades, the Jehovah's Witnesses have been viewed with suspicion in Russia, where the dominant Russian Orthodox Church is championed by President Vladimir Putin.

A Russian court in Siberia has sentenced a Jehovah's Witness to six years in prison amid an ongoing crackdown on the religious group, which has been banned in the country since 2017.

A court in the city of Krasnoyarsk sentenced Yevgeny Zinich on June 27 after finding him guilty of organizing the activities of an "extremist organization."

The court also ruled that Zinich will be on parole for one year after serving his term and banned him from leading public and religious organizations for two years.

The probe against Zinich was launched in early 2021.

Since the faith was outlawed, many Jehovah's Witnesses have been imprisoned in Russia.

According to the group, dozens of Jehovah's Witnesses have either been convicted of extremism or have been held in pretrial detention.

The United States has condemned Russia's ongoing crackdown on Jehovah's Witnesses and other peaceful religious minorities.

For decades, the Jehovah's Witnesses have been viewed with suspicion in Russia, where the dominant Russian Orthodox Church is championed by President Vladimir Putin.

The Christian group is known for door-to-door preaching, close Bible study, rejection of military service, and refusal to mark national and religious holidays or birthdays.


Zelenskiy Calls On UN To Visit Shopping Center Hit By Missile As G7 Vows Continued Support For Ukraine

Rescue services work at the site of a shopping mall hit by a Russian missile strike in Kremenchuk on June 27.

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy has called for the United Nations to send a special representative or the secretary-general to the site of a missile strike on a shopping mall in the city of Kremenchuk.

Zelenskiy said this would allow the UN to independently gather information and “see that this indeed was a Russian missile strike."

Zelenskiy made the comment on June 28 in a virtual address to an emergency session of the UN Security Council that Kyiv requested after the missile strike on June 27 in which at least 18 people died.

Russia's Defense Ministry denied it targeted the shopping mall, saying its missiles were fired at a weapons depot and that exploding ammunition stocks sparked the deadly fire.

"As a result of a high-precision strike, Western-made weapons and ammunition concentrated in the storage area for further shipment to the Ukrainian grouping of troops in the Donbas were hit," the ministry said in a statement.

Moscow also falsely claimed that the mall was "not operational" at the time of the strike.

Speaking from Kyiv, Zelenskiy, who after the strike said Russia should be labeled a "state sponsor of terrorism," also asked the UN to legally define the term "terrorist state." He argued that Moscow's invasion of his country demonstrates "the urgent necessity to enshrine it" at the level of the United Nations and punish any terrorist state.

He also said Russia should be excluded from the Security Council and should be deprived of its powers in the General Assembly.

Stories Of Heroism At Ukrainian Shopping Center Hit By Russian Missile
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Before Zelenskiy spoke, a UN official told the Security Council that the UN has recorded more than 10,600 civilian casualties in Ukraine, including 4,731 deaths. Rosemary DiCarlo, undersecretary-general for political and peacebuilding affairs, said the true toll was "considerably higher."

In addition to the 18 confirmed dead in the missile strike on the shopping center, dozens were injured and many are still missing, authorities said on June 28.

Regional Governor Dmytro Lunyn said the mall was "completely destroyed" by the missile strike, which Ukraine said was fired from Tu-22 long-range bombers.

Leaders of the Group of Seven (G7) nations pledged on the last day of a summit in Germany to support Kyiv for “as long as it takes" as the war grinds on.

Live Briefing: Russia's Invasion Of Ukraine

RFE/RL's Live Briefing gives you all of the latest developments on Russia's ongoing invasion, how Kyiv is fighting back, the plight of civilians and refugees, and Western aid and reaction. For all of RFE/RL's coverage of the war, click here.

The G7 leaders agreed that Russian President Vladimir Putin "must not win this war, and we will continue to keep up and drive higher the economic and political costs for President Putin and his regime,” German Chancellor Olaf Scholz said at a closing news conference.

“For that, it is important to stand together -- including in the long haul that we certainly still face.”

Speaking at the end of the summit, French President Emmanuel Macron vowed that the seven leading industrialized democracies would support Ukraine and maintain sanctions against Russia “as long as necessary, and with the necessary intensity.”

He called the attack on the shopping center "a new war crime" and said “Russia cannot and should not win” the war.

In another strike reported on June 28, Russian missiles hit in the city of Dnipro, the regional governor said. Fire broke out as a result of the strike, and rescuers were searching for people under the rubble, said a spokeswoman for emergency services in the Dnipropetrovsk region.

The missile hit a transport company, destroying 21 cars and 13 trucks, the spokeswoman said. A second missile hit an industrial enterprise, damaging several buildings.

The head of the Luhansk regional military administration, Serhiy Hayday said that Ukrainian defenders will try to hold the line against Russian forces in the east as they look to buy time until the arrival of Western weapons.

Russian forces were trying to storm Lysychansk, which lies across the Siverskiy Donets River from Syevyerodonetsk, to complete their capture of Luhansk in the Donbas region.

To the west of Lysychansk, the mayor of Slovyansk said Russian forces fired cluster munitions, including one that hit a residential neighborhood. Authorities said the number of victims had yet to be confirmed.

Separately, Zelenskiy said he had told NATO chief Jens Stoltenberg that his country needs missile defense systems to prevent Russian attacks.

Britain's Ministry of Defense said in its daily intelligence bulletin on June 28 that Ukrainian forces continued to consolidate their positions on higher ground in Lysychansk, after abandoning its twin city, Syevyerodonetsk, to the Russians.

The bulletin said Ukrainian forces continued to disrupt the Russians' command and control with successful strikes deep behind Russian lines.

British intelligence assessed that Russian forces in the Donbas are increasingly "hollowed out" and their combat effectiveness has been degraded -- a situation that is "probably unsustainable" in the long term.


NATO's Door Open, Stoltenberg Says After Turkey Lifts Objection To Sweden, Finland Joining Alliance

NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg (left), Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan (second left), Finnish President Sauli Niinisto (second right), and Swedish Prime Minister Magdalena Andersson pose after signing a joint memorandum during the NATO summit in Madrid on June 28.

Turkey has agreed to lift its opposition to NATO membership bids filed by Finland and Sweden in the wake of Russia's invasion of Ukraine.

Finnish President Sauli Niinisto said the breakthrough came after he and Swedish Prime Minister Magdalena Andersson and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan met on June 28 ahead of a NATO summit in Madrid and signed a joint memorandum "to extend their full support against threats to each other’s security."

The memorandum “confirms that [Turkey] will at the Madrid Summit this week support the invitation of Finland and Sweden to become members of NATO,” Niinisto said on Twitter.

"The concrete steps of our accession to NATO will be agreed by the NATO allies during the next two days, but that decision is now imminent," Niinisto said in a press release.

NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg and Turkey's presidency confirmed the accord in separate statements.

The agreement "sends a clear message to President Putin: NATO's door is open," Stoltenberg said at a press conference, referring to the Russian president, whose ardent opposition to Ukraine's desire to join NATO was a pretext for his decision to invade Ukraine in February.

The invasion raised fears in Finland and Sweden about Russian aggression, prompting them to seek to join the Western alliance, and once they are formally accepted as members, Finland's long border with Russia means the Russian-NATO border will expand dramatically.

Stoltenberg said NATO's 30 members would now invite Finland and Sweden to join NATO and that they would become official "invitees." The parliaments of the NATO countries must ratify the decision, a process that could take up to a year.

Finland and Sweden last month moved to abandon their nonaligned status and applied to join the military alliance, but their bids were held back by Turkey, which has accused both nations, particularly Sweden, of offering a safe haven to Kurdish militants who have been waging an insurgency against the Turkish state.

The issue threatened to cloud the summit and its attempt to proclaim unity among NATO members in the face of Russia's aggression against Ukraine.

Under the terms of the deal, Sweden will intensify work on Turkey's requests for the extradition of suspected Kurdish militants, Stoltenberg said. Sweden and Finland also will amend their laws to toughen their approach to Kurdish militants from the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) and will lift their restrictions on selling weapons to Turkey.

The Turkish presidency statement said the agreement meant "full cooperation with Turkey in the fight against the PKK and its affiliates."

It also said Sweden and Finland were "demonstrating solidarity with Turkey in the fight against terrorism in all its forms and manifestations."

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson said on Twitter: "Fantastic news as we kick off the NATO summit. Sweden and Finland's membership will make our brilliant alliance stronger and safer."

The NATO summit is expected to be one of the most important summits of the Western alliance in recent years amid Russia's unprovoked invasion of Ukraine.

Stoltenberg said earlier that the three-day summit will agree a new assistance package for Ukraine in areas "like secure communications, anti-drone systems, and fuel."

Stoltenberg said Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has sparked a “fundamental shift” in NATO’s approach to defense, and member states will have to boost their military spending.

The meeting will chart a blueprint for the alliance “in a more dangerous and unpredictable world,” he said.

Strengthening defenses against Russia and supporting Ukraine top the agenda of the meeting, which Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy is due to address virtually.

Live Briefing: Russia's Invasion Of Ukraine

RFE/RL's Live Briefing gives you all of the latest developments on Russia's ongoing invasion, how Kyiv is fighting back, the plight of civilians and refugees, and Western aid and reaction. For all of RFE/RL's coverage of the war, click here.

The United States and Spain issued a joint declaration ahead of the summit, condemning Russia for invading Ukraine. The declaration, which came after U.S. President Joe Biden met with Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez, said the invasion “fundamentally altered the global strategic environment.”

The declaration emphasized the two countries' defense partnership through NATO and said Russia’s invasion of Ukraine "constitutes the most direct threat to transatlantic security and global stability since the end of the Cold War.”

The summit will also change language dating back to 2010 describing Russia as a strategic partner.

"That will not be the case in the strategic concept that we will agree in Madrid," Stoltenberg said.

"I expect that allies will state clearly that Russia poses a direct threat to our security, to our values, to the rules-based international order."

Stoltenberg announced on June 27 that NATO will boost its high-readiness forces to "well over 300,000" in response to Russia's war in Ukraine. The NATO Response Force currently has about 40,000 troops.

The summit will also be attended by leaders of countries not currently members of NATO -- including South Korea and Japan -- as observers.

Stoltenberg said on June 28 that NATO does not see China as an adversary but it is concerned about Beijing's ever-closer ties with Moscow.

He noted that China will soon be the biggest economy in the world and that NATO needs to engage with Beijing on issues like climate change.

"But we are disappointed by the fact that China has not been able to condemn the Russian invasion of Ukraine, that China is spreading many of the false narratives about NATO, the West, and also that China and Russia are more close now than they have ever been before," he added.

With reporting by Reuters, AP, and Time

Iran, U.S. To Hold Indirect Talks In Doha After EU Push to Restart Talks On Nuclear Deal

Iran's top nuclear negotiator, Ali Bagheri Kani, will travel to Doha for the nuclear talks.

Indirect talks between Iran and the United States are set to take place on June 28 in Doha, Qatar, the Iranian Foreign Ministry said amid a push by the European Union to break an impasse in negotiations to revive the 2015 nuclear deal.

Iran said the discussions would be mediated by EU chief negotiator Enrique Mora and no direct talks between Iran and the United States were planned.

Iran's top nuclear negotiator, Ali Bagheri Kani, will travel to Doha for the nuclear talks, Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Naser Kanani told state news agency IRNA.

Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Saeed Khatibzadeh said on June 27 the talks would focus on the lifting of U.S. sanctions.l

The talks will be separate from broader EU-mediated negotiations that have taken place in Vienna between Iran and major powers.

The U.S. State Department confirmed the meeting and reiterated Iran needed to drop additional demands that go beyond the scope of the pact.

European Union foreign policy chief Josep Borrell last week traveled to Tehran in a push to resuscitate negotiations over Iran’s nuclear program. EU countries have been forced to find oil suppliers other than Russia as they seek to lower their reliance on Russian energy amid the war in Ukraine.

Under the 2015 nuclear deal, Iran agreed to limits on its controversial nuclear program in exchange for relief from punitive sanctions imposed by the West. But the arrangement began to fall apart in 2018 when then- U.S. President Donald Trump pulled Washington out of the deal.

Trump subsequently reimposed crippling sanctions on Tehran, while the Iranian government backed away from some of the commitments laid out in the deal.

Iran has been engaged for more than a year in negotiations in Vienna with Britain, Germany, France, Russia, and China directly -- and the United States indirectly -- to revive the deal.

Negotiators were reportedly close to a new agreement in March, but the talks abruptly stalled in April, with Tehran and Washington blaming each other for failing to take the necessary political decisions to settle remaining issues.

One of them is Tehran's insistence that Washington remove the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) from its list of designated foreign terrorist organizations.

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recently warned that Iran will be able to produce the raw material for a nuclear bomb within a few weeks. Tehran has repeatedly stressed that its nuclear program is for peaceful purposed.

News of the talks in Qatar came shortly after Iran said it tested a booster rocket designed to send a research satellite into space.

With reporting by Reuters, AFP, and dpa

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