Vaclav Havel Dead At 75
His office said Havel died early on December 18 at his country cottage in the village of Hradecek, in northern Bohemia, after a long illness.
Under communism, Havel's plays were banned, and he spent five years in jail for standing up to the regime.
On November 23, 1989, Havel addressed a crowd of more than 300,000 on Prague's Wenceslas Square. "We want to live in a free, democratic, and prosperous Czechoslovakia," he said. "We want to return to Europe, and we shall never give up our ideals, regardless of whatever happens in the coming days."
Czechoslovakia's Velvet Revolution had begun six days earlier, with a peaceful student protest that was broken up violently by police. In the following days, hundreds of thousands of Czechs and Slovaks took to the streets in peaceful demonstrations.
Havel, a dissident playwright who had once described himself as a "confused intellectual," emerged as the revolution's key figure, addressing the huge crowds and leading the talks that negotiated a peaceful end to communist rule.
By the end of that year, Havel had been elected president of a free Czechoslovakia. Four decades of communism were over.
Vaclav Havel was born on October 5, 1936, to an affluent family.
The communists that came to power in a 1948 coup confiscated most of the family's property and largely barred Havel from higher education.
After military service, he gravitated to the theater, first as a stagehand and then, in the 1960s, writing plays that often dealt with the absurdities of life under communism.
Then, in 1968, Soviet-led Warsaw Pact troops invaded Czechoslovakia to put down the Prague Spring reform movement. Havel's plays were banned, and he was put under constant police surveillance.
In 1976, he co-authored Charter 77, a petition that called on the communist government to respect the international treaties on civil rights it had signed. Charter signatories were persecuted; Havel was jailed for 3 1/2 years.
On the eve of its 10th anniversary, Havel reflected on the manifesto's significance, saying that in many ways today it had "gone surprisingly beyond its original intentions. Not that the Charter has become something else than it wanted to be -- it continues to maintain its original purpose, to show openly the violations of human rights, demand that laws be respected in practice. That's still the main line of its work."
Czechoslovak, Then Czech President
In 1989, the Soviet-bloc countries of Eastern Europe were on the brink of tumultuous change. In September of that year, thousands of East Germans began streaming into the Czech capital in an attempt to flee to the West. Two months later, the Berlin Wall came tumbling down.
On November 17, the police cracked down on a student demonstration in Prague. It sparked the mass outpouring of public sympathy that became known as the Velvet Revolution. Havel was the leading figure in that revolution, as one of the founders of the civic opposition group Civic Forum.
With the communist regime quickly crumbling, Havel launched his campaign for the presidency on December 10 -- International Human Rights Day.
"Let's not allow anyone in any way to sully this beautiful face of our peaceful revolution," he said. "Truth and love must triumph over lies and hatred."
Havel was elected president on December 29, 1989, less than six weeks after the first mass demonstrations calling for change.
After his reelection in 1990, Havel spent much of his time trying to preserve the Czechoslovak federation from breaking up over demands for autonomy by Slovak nationalists.
He failed, and resigned in 1992. But after Czechoslovakia's so-called Velvet Divorce, he was elected president of a newly independent Czech Republic in 1993 -- and again in 1998.
By the time Havel retired in 2003, the Czech Republic was a member of NATO and was on the verge of joining the European Union.
WATCH: Important moments from Vaclav Havel's life (AP video, natural sound):
In his later years, he was dogged by ill-health. In 1996, the year his first wife, Olga, died of lung cancer, Havel had surgery to remove a cancerous lung tumor. Two years later, he nearly died after an operation for a ruptured colon.
But he remained an outspoken advocate for human rights and democracy in places such as Cuba, Russia, China, or Belarus.
In one of his last interviews with RFE/RL, Havel looked back, 20 years later, at the events of November 1989. He said it had become clear that sooner or later change would come, the only question was when. And that the student demonstration of November 17 had provided the trigger.
"They couldn't foresee how it would all turn out and that this would be the snowball that would trigger an avalanche. Of course, we didn't know it either. By 'we' I mean the signers of Charter 77, the dissidents," Havel said.
"What was clear, however -- and I've spoken or written about this before -- was that sooner or later a snowball would start rolling and turn into an avalanche. No one knew what that snowball would be and when it would happen precisely. We weren't soothsayers. But it was clear that sooner or later it had to happen."
Throughout his public life, Havel pleaded for a "civil society" founded on honesty and humanism. As the years went on, he often came into conflict with more pragmatic politicians, who rarely enjoyed his frequent reproofs.
Havel oversaw his country's peaceful transition to democracy, and guided it through its critical infancy, reanchoring Czechs in the Western family of nations.
He is likely to be remembered by the world and by his compatriots for those singular achievements.
PHOTO GALLERY: Vaclav Havel -- A Life In Pictures:
compiled by Kathleen Moore and former RFE/RL correspondent Jolyon Naegele
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Iran Shuts Three Cafes In Qom Over Unveiled Women
Authorities in Iran have closed three coffee shops in the central city of Qom because female customers were not wearing their head scarves, local media report.
"Three coffee shops were closed in Qom due to numerous violations, including women's lack of veils and other issues," said a July 4 statement by the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps published in the newspaper Hamshari.
"The owners of the cafes were summoned by police before legal action was taken," the statement added.
The holy Shi'ite city of Qom is home to dozens of religious seminaries and senior clerics.
Under Islamic law enforced in Iran since the 1979 revolution, women must wear a hijab that covers the head and neck while concealing their hair.
Many have pushed the boundaries over the years by allowing their head coverings to slide back and reveal more hair, especially in Tehran and other major cities.
Recently, the government has reportedly renewed its crackdown on women who are deemed insufficiently veiled.
Based on reporting by AFP and Hamshahri
Ukraine, Allies Adopt Principles For Reconstruction
Dozens of countries have committed to support Ukraine through what is expected to be a long and expensive recovery, and agreed on the need for broad reforms to boost transparency and battle corruption.
Wrapping up a two-day conference in the southern Swiss city of Lugano on July 5, leaders from some 40 countries signed on to the Lugano Declaration, laying out a set of principles for rebuilding Ukraine.
Signatories, including the United States, Britain, France, and Japan, condemned Russia's military aggression against Ukraine "in the strongest terms" and urged Moscow to withdraw its troops without delay.
Swiss President Iganzio Cassis, who co-hosted the conference with Ukraine, hailed the declaration as a "key first step on the long road of Ukraine's recovery."
"Our work prepares for the time after the war even as the war is still raging," he told the closing ceremony.
"This should give the people in Ukraine hope and the certainty that they are not alone."
The signatories welcomed commitments to provide political, financial, and technical support and launched the "Lugano principles" to guide the reconstruction effort, which Kyiv says could cost up to $750 billion.
Ukrainian Prime Minister Denys Shmyhal said on July 5 that the declaration was "definitely the start of our long-distance" process.
"We have to make everything that was destroyed better than it was," he said.
The Lugano principles stress that "the recovery process has to contribute to accelerating, deepening, broadening, and achieving Ukraine's reform efforts and resilience in line with Ukraine's European path."
"The recovery process has to be transparent and accountable to the people of Ukraine," the document says.
It also calls for the recovery process to be "inclusive and ensure gender equality," and for Ukraine to be rebuilt in a "sustainable manner."
With reporting by Reuters and AFP
Ukrainian Mathematician Becomes Second Woman To Receive Prestigious Fields Medal
Four mathematicians have been awarded prestigious Fields medals, including Ukrainian Maryna Viazovska, the International Mathematical Union jury said on July 5.
Viazovska is only the second woman to win the prize, considered the equivalent of a Nobel Prize for mathematics.
She accepted the award at a ceremony in Helsinki as war raged in her home country.
The other winners were French mathematician Hugo Duminil-Copin of the University of Geneva; Korean-American mathematician June Huh of Princeton; and British mathematician James Maynard of the University of Oxford.
The Fields Medal is awarded every four years to mathematicians under 40.
Maryam Mirzakhani , an Iranian-born professor at Stanford University, was the first woman to receive the prize for her work in 2014. She died of breast cancer in 2017.
Viazovska has been a professor at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Switzerland since 2017.
She was awarded for her work in sphere packing -- a problem first posed by German astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler nearly 400 years ago.
The International Congress of Mathematicians, where the prize is awarded, was initially scheduled to be held in the Russian city of St. Petersburg -- and opened by Russian President Vladimir Putin.
Earlier this year, hundreds of mathematicians signed an open letter protesting the choice of the host city. After Moscow invaded Ukraine in late February, the event was moved to the Finnish capital.
With reporting by AFP, AP and The New York Times
NATO Launches Ratification Process For Swedish, Finnish Membership
The 30 NATO allies have signed off on the accession protocols for Sweden and Finland, sending the membership bids of the two countries to the alliance capitals for legislative approval, in a historic step brought on by Russia's unprovoked war in Ukraine.
"This is a good day for Finland and Sweden and a good day for NATO," alliance chief Jens Stoltenberg told reporters in a joint press statement with the Swedish and Finnish foreign ministers on July 5.
"With 32 nations around the table, we will be even stronger and our people will be even safer as we face the biggest security crisis in decades," he added.
The historic shifts by Sweden and Finland came in the face of Russia's brutal invasion of Ukraine in February and other aggressive moves by the Kremlin in the region. Public opinion in the Nordic countries quickly turned in favor of NATO membership following the invasion.
Every alliance member has different legislative challenges and procedures to deal with, and it could take several more months for the two to become official members.
"I look forward to a swift ratification process," Finnish Foreign Minister Pekka Haavisto said.
"Thank you for your support! Now the process of ratification by each of the allies begins," Swedish Foreign Minister Ann Linde said on Twitter.
Ankara initially said it would veto their bids, with President Recep Tayyip Erdogan accusing them of providing havens for Kurdish militants operating in Turkey and for promoting what he called "terrorism."
Following negotiations, Erdogan said he would drop his objections but indicated he could still block their membership bids if they failed to follow through on promises, some of which were undisclosed.
Based on reporting by AFP and AP
Ukraine's Armed Forces Determined To 'Break' Moscow's Offensive Capabilities
President Volodymyr Zelenskiy says Ukraine's armed forces are undeterred in their efforts to "break" Moscow's will to pursue the war against his country hours after Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered his military to continue its offensive in eastern Ukraine.
Zelenskiy said in his nightly video message on July 4 that despite Ukraine's withdrawal from Lysychansk, which enabled Russia to claim full control of the eastern Luhansk region, its troops continued to fight.
"We need to break them," he said. "It is a difficult task. It requires time and superhuman efforts. But we have no alternative."
Ukrainian forces on July 5 took up new defensive lines in Donetsk, where they still control major cities.
Russian forces shelled the towns of Slovyansk and Kramatorsk overnight, said Pavlo Kyrylenko, head of the Donetsk regional military administration.
"They are now also the main line of assault for the enemy," he said of the towns. "There is no safe place without shelling in Donetsk region."
Ukraine's military said it withdrew from the bombed-out city of Lysychansk late on July 3 to save the lives of its soldiers, while Zelenskiy vowed to retake the city "thanks to the increase in the supply of modern weapons."
"This is the last victory for Russia on Ukrainian territory," Oleksiy Arestovych, an adviser to Zelenskiy, said in a video posted online.
Arestovych said that besides the battle for Donetsk, Ukraine was hoping to launch counteroffensives in the south of the country.
"Taking the cities in the east meant that 60 percent of Russian forces are now concentrated in the east and it is difficult for them to be redirected to the south," he said.
"And there are no more forces that can be brought in from Russia. They paid a big price for Syevyerodonetsk and Lysychansk," he said.
Early on July 5, Russian rockets hit the southern city of Mykolayiv, on the main highway between Kherson and Odesa, Mayor Oleksandr Senkevych said.
With reporting by Reuters and dpa
Belgian Detained In Iran As Brussels Mulls Controversial Prisoner-Swap Treaty With Tehran
Iran has been holding a Belgian man for the past four months on "espionage" charges, Belgium's justice minister has said, as the country considers a controversial treaty with Tehran.
The man was seized in Iran on February 24 and has been in "illegal" detention since, Justice Minister Vincent Van Quickenborne told Belgian lawmakers without identifying him. Some reports suggested that Iran had arrested an former NGO worker.
Quickenborne said officials from Belgium's embassy in Tehran had twice visited the jailed man to give all possible assistance, and that his family had earlier on July 5 made public his detention.
"I cannot say more, at the express request of the family," the minister said.
His comments came as Belgium's parliament is set to debate whether to ratify a proposed treaty with Iran that could allow an Iranian diplomat serving a 20-year sentence for plotting a bomb attack outside Paris to be sent back to Tehran.
The treaty has been criticized by opposition lawmakers and lawyers for a dissident Iranian group, who say it would pave the way for Assadollah Assadi, convicted of terror charges and sentenced in February 2021, to be repatriated.
The treaty's text "is tailored to Assadi", opposition deputy Georges Dallemagne said.
Assadi was found guilty of attempted terrorism after a plot to bomb a rally of the National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI), an exiled opposition group, near Paris in June 2018. The NCRI is the political wing of the exiled Iranian opposition group Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MKO or MEK), an exiled opposition group that is seeking to overthrow the Islamic republic.
Dallemagne predicted the Belgian government would present any release of Assadi as a "humanitarian operation," a trade for a Swedish-Iranian academic, Ahmadreza Djalali, who is being held in Iran under sentence of death.
Djalali was accused of providing information to Israel to help it assassinate several senior nuclear scientists. He taught at a Brussels university. However, it is not clear if he would be covered by the treaty as he doesn't have Belgian nationality.
Amnesty International said in May that Iranian authorities were using Djalili as a hostage "to pervert the course of justice in Sweden and Belgium."
The London-based rights group suggested that Iran's threat to execute Djalali was tied to the trial in Stockholm of Hamid Nouri, a former prison official, who is accused of having a role in the mass execution and torture of political prisoners at an Iranian prison in the 1980s. Amnesty also said that Iran wants the release of Assadi.
Contacted by AFP, a spokesman for Belgian Justice Minister Vincent Van Quickenborne said, "there is no connection with Djalali's case.”
He added that the minister would "explain his point of view" to parliament on July 5. The spokesman declined to give further details.
A copy of the treaty obtained by AFP showed it was signed on March 11 by the Belgian Justice Ministry and the Iranian ambassador to Belgium. It says that "the best way" to boost cooperation with Iran in justice matters was to allow convicts to serve out their sentences in their home countries. It also allows that each jurisdiction grant amnesty to the returned convicts or commute their sentences.
"This is an erosion of the legal system," opposition lawmaker Michael Freilich said. "Iran has made clear publicly that they don't see Assadi as a terrorist, but as a diplomat. He will be freed as soon as he steps foot on Iranian soil."
Debate on the treaty was to start on July 5, with the full parliament to vote whether to adopt it later in the week.
With reporting by AFP and Politico
Protesters Rally In Skopje For Third Night Against Compromise With Bulgaria
SKOPJE -- Thousands of people protested for the third night in North Macedonia's capital against a French proposal that seeks to end a dispute with Bulgaria that is blocking Skopje's bid to join the European Union.
Some of the protesters in the July 4 rally threw paper towels, plastic bottles, water balloons, and eggs at government buildings in the capital. Some hung flowers on police shields.
Demonstrators say the proposal "Bulgarianizes" the country and does not recognize the Macedonian language and history.
The protests, backed by the center-right VMRO-DPMNE opposition party, came after French President Emmanuel Macron said he believed a compromise was near over the long-standing dispute to end Bulgaria's veto of North Macedonia's EU membership.
Macedonian Prime Minister Dimitar Kovachevski said the French proposal was a "solid base for building a responsible and statesmanlike stance on the possibility that opens up to our country."
However, VMRO-DPMNE and other right-wing opponents demand the government reject the plan, saying it concedes too much to Bulgaria in a dispute over history, language, identity, and culture.
Bulgaria, which has been an EU member since 2007, had insisted that North Macedonia formally recognize that its language had Bulgarian roots, acknowledge in its constitution a Bulgarian minority, and renounce what it said was "hate speech" against Bulgaria.
North Macedonia has said its identity and language aren’t open for discussion.
The French proposal would have Skopje include ethnic Bulgarians in its constitution "on an equal footing with other peoples" and change history textbook, among other items, some not yet publicly disclosed.
North Macedonia's government is expected in the next few days to present the proposal to parliament.
Charles Michel, president of the European Council, is scheduled to visit Skopje on July 5 to offer support for the French proposal as a compromise between Skopje and Sofia.
Britain To Slap New Sanctions On Belarus For Aiding Russia's Invasion Of Ukraine
The British governments says it will introduce a new round of economic, trade, and transport sanctions on Belarus and the regime of authoritarian ruler Alyaksandr Lukashenka.
In a statement on July 4, the British Foreign Office said the package of sanctions "extends some of the significant measures made against Russia to Belarus."
It said the new sanctions will be formally announced and take effect on July 5.
Western governments have imposed financial sanctions on Russia to punish it for its unprovoked invasion of Ukraine.
Belarus is not a direct participant in the war, but it has provided logistical aid to Russian troops, many of whom crossed the border into Ukraine from Belarus, leading the West to also impose sanctions on Minsk.
The statement said the British government will also restrict "Belarus's access to the U.K.'s world-class financial services sector -- banning more Belarusian companies from issuing debt and securities in London."
"The Belarus regime has actively facilitated [Russian President Vladimir] Putin's invasion, letting Russia use its territory to pincer Ukraine -- launching troops and missiles from their border and flying Russian jets through their airspace," the statement said.
Lukashenka "has also openly supported the Kremlin's narrative, claiming that Kyiv was 'provoking Russia' in order to justify Putin's bloody invasion."
British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, while plagued by a series of scandals at home, has taken a leading role among Western states in hitting Russia and Belarus with sanctions following the Kremlin's invasion of Ukraine.
The Crisis In Belarus
Read our ongoing coverage as Belarusian strongman Alyaksandr Lukashenka continues his brutal crackdown on NGOs, activists, and independent media following the August 2020 presidential election, widely seen as fraudulent.
The Foreign Office said the new action built on the "wide-ranging measures" the government had imposed on Minsk, including a 35 percent increase on tariffs on a range of goods originating from Belarus.
It has also placed sanctions on Lukashenka and senior government officials "for their continued human rights violations and undermining of democracy."
Lukashenka, 67 years old and in power since 1994, has tightened his grip on the country since the 2020 election by arresting -- sometimes violently -- tens of thousands of people. Fearing for their safety, most opposition members have been forced to flee the country.
The West has refused to recognize the results of the election and does not consider Lukashenka to be the country's legitimate leader.
Many countries have imposed several rounds of sanctions against his regime in response to the suppression of dissent in the country.
With reporting by RFE/RL’s Belarus Service
Germany Suspends Funds For Bosnian Serb Entity’s Infrastructure Projects Over Leaders’ Policies
Germany has suspended 120 million euros ($125 million) worth of infrastructure projects in Bosnia-Herzegovina’s Serb entity over its leaders' secessionist policies, the international peace envoy said.
Christian Schmidt told Bosnian regional N1 television on July 4 that he could not rule out that Germany could follow the United States and Britain by imposing sanctions against those seen as destabilizing Bosnia.
"Nobody should feel safe in this regard," Schmidt said without naming anyone specifically. Schmidt, a German politician, assumed the role of high commissioner in August 2021.
Pro-Russia Serb leader Milorad Dodik sparked Bosnia's worst political crisis since the end of its 1990s war and triggered sanctions against him from London and Washington after saying late last year that Republika Srpska, the ethnic-Serb entity, would pull out of the Western Balkan nation’s joint military, top judiciary body, and tax administration.
The Republika Srpska parliament in December voted to start work on a nonbinding motion meant to pave the way for secession.
In June, Dodik said the war in Ukraine has forced Bosnian Serb nationalists to delay the plans to pull their region out of Bosnia-Herzegovina's national institutions.
Dodik serves as the Serb member of Bosnia's tripartite presidency, which also includes a Bosniak Muslim and an ethnic Croatian member.
Bosnia-Herzegovina is still governed under the terms of a 1995 peace treaty known as the Dayton accords that divided the country into a Bosniak and Croat federation and a majority-Serb
Based on reporting by Reuters
Tehran ‘Temporarily’ Cuts Off Access To Country’s Banking System To Iranians Abroad
Iranian authorities have “temporarily cut off” access to the country’s banking system for Iranians abroad to “prevent cyberattacks,” Iranian state news agency IRNA reported.
IRNA said on July 4 that "the restrictions were applied on the recommendation of the competent authorities and in order to deal with cyber threats."
The news agency did not specify the "competent authorities" but added that the action "only concerns a limited number of banks that have the most connections abroad to banking systems, including online banking and mobile banking applications."
Iran has faced a number of cyberattacks in recent years. It has also faced accusations that it has orchestrated cyberattacks on rival nations, including Israel and Saudi Arabia.
On June 27, one of Iran's biggest steel companies was forced to halt its operations until further notice after being targeted by a cyberattack.
The Khuzestan Steel Company said in a statement that experts had determined the firm was unable to continue production due to technical problems following cyberattacks.
In 2021, an attack on the electronic-transaction system used to distribute subsidized fuel paralyzed more than 4,000 gasoline stations across the country and resulted in long lines of angry motorists unable to use their government-issued smart cards.
Iran was also targeted about a decade ago by the Stuxnet computer worm, which is widely believed to have been engineered by the United States and Israel to sabotage the country’s nuclear program.
Iran, Russia, Turkey Considering Plan To Jointly Manufacture Automobiles
Industry officials from Iran, Russia, and Turkey are considering a joint program to design and manufacture automobiles in view of disruptions caused by Western sanctions, Iranian state media reported.
"There is a great possibility of tripartite cooperation between car manufacturers and suppliers of the three countries," said Mohammadreza Najafi-Manesh, the head of Iran's Auto Parts Manufacturers Association, according to the IRNA news agency.
"These three countries can capture a large market for their products," Najafi-Manesh said.
Najafi-Manesh said the idea was first floated by Turkey and that Russia was "interested."
Western nations have slapped financial sanctions on Russia following its invasion of Ukraine.
The United States also reimposed crippling sanctions on Iran in 2018 after Washington pulled out of a deal with world powers on Iran's nuclear program.
Many Western car manufacturers launched projects in Russia to assemble cars over the past two decades, but most pulled out after the Kremlin sent troops into Ukraine in February.
Based on reporting by AFP, IRNA, and The Tehran Times
U.S. General, Russia Expert, Assumes NATO Supreme Command In Europe
U.S. Army General Christopher Cavoli -- who speaks Russian and has a master’s degree from Yale in Russian studies -- has taken over as NATO's new supreme allied commander in Europe (SACEUR) at a ceremony in Mons, Belgium.
NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg said in his ceremony speech on July 4 that Cavoli assumes command amid "the return of brutal conflict to Europe."
He replaces retiring U.S. General Tod Wolters as the SACEUR commander.
Stoltenberg highlighted Cavoli's role in overseeing the recent buildup of U.S. troop deployments to Europe in reaction to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
The general will be primarily responsible for the planning and implementation of military measures designed to defend the Western alliance and deter Russia.
Cavoli was born in Germany and has lived much of his life on U.S. military bases. He joined the U.S. Army in 1987 and has served in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Iraq, and Afghanistan.
Along with Russian, he also speaks French and Italian.
He will assume a role first taken by Dwight Eisenhower, who was appointed SACEUR in 1950 before becoming U.S. president in 1953.
Based on reporting by dpa and Stars & Stripes
Wimbledon Organizers Appeal Fine Over Ban On Russian, Belarusian Tennis Players
The All England Club -- organizer of the Wimbledon tennis tournament -- is appealing a fine imposed by the WTA women’s tour for its banning of Russian and Belarusian players from the famed event in the wake of Russia's invasion of Ukraine.
All England Club CEO Sally Bolton said on July 4 that the club appealed its WTA fine, reportedly at $250,000.
The WTA reportedly also fined the Lawn Tennis Association (LTA) -- the British federation for the sport -- $750,000, and a source familiar with the matter said the LTA has also appealed the fine.
The LTA did not allow players from Russia or Belarus to take part in grass-court tune-up events last month in three cities.
Bolton said the All England Club is waiting to hear from the ATP men’s tour on whether it will also fine the tournament over the ban.
The All England Club announced in April that, following guidance from the British government, players from Russia and Belarus would not be allowed to compete at Wimbledon this year.
That decision meant that players such as top-ranked male Daniil Medvedev and two-time major champion Victoria Azarenka would not be allowed to compete.
“It was an incredibly difficult and challenging decision to make. It was not one we took lightly,” Bolton said.
The WTA and ATP called the move discriminatory and took the unprecedented step of declaring they would not award rankings points to any players at the Grand Slam tournament, which is scheduled to end on July 10.
Based on reporting by AP, Reuters, and dpa
Pope Denies Resignation Rumors, Says Hopes To Visit Kyiv, Moscow Soon
Pope Francis dismissed rumors that he plans to resign anytime soon and said he hopes to visit Kyiv and Moscow in the near future.
In an interview with Reuters published on July 4, Francis also told Reuters that it “never entered my mind” to announce a planned retirement at the end of the summer, although he reiterated that he could step down some day in the way that Emeritus Pope Benedict XVI did in 2013.
The pontiff had planned to visit Congo and South Sudan this week but had to cancel the trip because doctors said he needed more therapy on an injured knee.
He said he was still scheduled to travel to Canada on July 24-30 and said he hoped to visit Russia and Ukraine sometime thereafter.
Following the remarks, Ukraine renewed its invitation for Francis to visit Ukraine and urged the pontiff to continue praying for the Ukrainian people.
"It is time to deepen connections with those who sincerely desire it,” Foreign Ministry spokesman Oleh Nikolenko said.
“We renew the invitation to Pope Francis to visit our country and urge you to continue praying for the Ukrainian people.”
Based on reporting by Reuters and AP
Turkey Holding Russian-Flagged Ship As Grain Cargo Investigated
A Turkish official and the port-operating company on July 4 confirmed that authorities had stopped a Russian-flagged cargo ship and are investigating claims by Ukraine that it was carrying stolen grain.
"Upon request, the ship named Zhibek Zholy was halted off Karasu," a senior official told Reuters. "The allegations are being investigated thoroughly. It is not written on the grain who it belongs to."
On July 3, Vasyl Bodnar, Ukraine's ambassador to Turkey, said the Zhibek Zholy was being detained by Turkish customs authorities.
Ukraine had asked Ankara to detain it, accusing Moscow of stealing grain from the territories that Russian forces have seized since their invasion began on February 24. Kyiv said the ship set off from Berdyansk, a Ukrainian port occupied by Russian forces.
The Kremlin has denied that Russia has stolen any Ukrainian grain.
Custom officials at the Turkish Black Sea port of Karasu had for now denied passage to the vessel, an employee of the IC Ictas port company told dpa.
Marinetraffic.com said the 140-meter general cargo vessel was sailing under the Russian flag. It showed the ship late on July 1 anchored about 1 kilometer off Karasu.
On June 30, Evgeny Balitsky, head of the Moscow-appointed administration in Ukraine's Zaporizhzhya region, said on Telegram that the ship had left the Berdyansk port and was headed for "friendly countries."
He said the ship was loaded with 7,000 tons of grain, but he did not specify which countries were considered friendly nor did he give any details on the origins of the grain.
Bodnar said investigators would meet in Turkey on July 4 to determine the ship's fate and that Ukraine was seeking return of the grain.
Ukraine has accused Russia of stealing its grain during the invasion and blockading its ports to keep grain from leaving the country, which has helped contribute to a global food shortage.
Moscow has denied taking Ukrainian grain, but satellite images and GPS data have been used to back up the allegations that Russia has been transporting grain out of Ukraine through the Crimean port of Sevastopol. Russia illegally annexed Crimea in 2014.
Grain is one of Ukraine's main industries. Exports totaled $12.2 billion last year and accounted for nearly one-fifth of the country's exports. Ukraine's Black Sea ports, including Berdyansk, handled about 6 million tons of grains and other crops each month before the war.
With reporting by RFE/RL’s Ukrainian Service, Reuters, dpa, AFP, and AP
Union Warns Over Deteriorating Health Of Jailed Activists On Hunger Strike In Iran
The Tehran and Suburbs Bus Company Workers' Union has warned that the health condition of jailed labor activists Reza Shahabi and Hasan Saeedi is deteriorating due to their refusal to eat.
The union said in a statement issued over the weekend that on the 20th day of his hunger strike, Shahabi had short contact with his family but they could not even ask about his health. According to the family, Reza Shahabi's weak voice was indicative of his physical weakness.
The union added that Shahabi's interrogator has insisted on telling his family that he can still speak.
According to this statement, Saeedi passed the 10th day of his hunger strike in the solitary cell of Evin Prison on July 2.
The union wrote that Saeedi has lost a lot of weight and is not in good physical condition, and yet, he is under interrogation.
Shahabi, a member of the board of directors of the Tehran Bus Workers' Union, has been on a hunger strike since June 13 to protest against his continued detention.
Shahabi was arrested at his home on May 10 by Intelligence Ministry officers shortly after publicly calling on the authorities to investigate death threats against him and his family.
On May 17, state television alleged Shahabi and other labor activists had met with two French nationals -- 37-year-old Cecile Kohler and her 69-year-old partner, Jacques Paris -- who have been detained and accused of seeking to foment unrest in Iran.
The allegations come as the security forces try to suppress antigovernment protests in cities across the country against skyrocketing inflation and the government's recent decision to cut some subsidies. Reports say at least five demonstrators have died in the protests.
With writing and reporting by Ardeshir Tayebi
Sweden, Finland Hold NATO Talks Ahead Of Formal Summit On Accession Protocols
Sweden and Finland are holding talks with NATO officials in Brussels on starting the formal process to join the Western military alliance -- a move that would mark a dramatic departure from the Nordic countries’ long-standing policies of nonalignment on military matters.
The July 4 talks are being led by Swedish Foreign Minister Ann Linde and Finnish counterpart Pekka Haavisto and follow an agreement with NATO member Turkey last week that led to Ankara dropping its objections to their membership.
On July 5, ambassadors from NATO's 30 member states are expected to sign the accession protocols for Sweden and Finland. It is then likely to take a few months before their memberships are ratified by all alliance members.
The historic shifts by Sweden and Finland came in the face of Russia’s brutal invasion of Ukraine in February and other aggressive moves by the Kremlin in the region. Public opinion in the Nordic countries quickly turned in favor of NATO membership following the invasion.
Ankara initially said it would veto their membership, with President Recep Tayyip Erdogan accusing them of providing havens for Kurdish militants operating in Turkey and for promoting what he called “terrorism.”
Following negotiations, Erdogan said he would drop his objections but indicated he could still block their membership bids if they failed to follow through on promises, some of which were undisclosed.
Based on reporting by AFP
Activist Warns About The Spread Of Tuberculosis At Iran’s Qarchak Prison
Iranian activist and former political prisoner Atena Daemi says that about 40 people in Ward 6 of Qarchak Prison, south of Tehran, are suspected of having tuberculosis.
Writing on Twitter, Daemi added that about 100 prisoners are kept in this ward and that the prisoners suspected of having tuberculosis have been tested. Daemi, who spent five years in prison over her activism, maintains contact with prisoners.
On June 27, Daemi published a post on her Instagram page and wrote that a prisoner in the women's ward of Qarchak Prison was infected with tuberculosis and the prison authorities were not paying attention to her condition.
"After the protest of the prisoners, this person had been taken to quarantine for a few days. But she was returned to the prison again, and after that at least three other people in this prison were infected with tuberculosis," Daemi added.
According to human rights activists, Qarchak Prison currently holds about 1,500 prisoners. Before becoming a prison for women, the site was a poultry farm and then a drug-rehab camp for men, and according to the official announcement of the prison authorities, it only has a capacity of 1,200 prisoners.
Activists and political prisoners have warned repeatedly about the poor hygiene at Qarchak Prison and what they describe as a lack of attention to the health of the prisoners.
Last year, the Paris-based Reporters Without Borders warned of the “appalling conditions” at Qarchak Prison and called for an immediate reaction from the Office of the UN High Commission for Human Rights and the UN special rapporteur on human rights in Iran.
With writing and reporting by Ardeshir Tayebi
Russia Says It Will Respond in Kind To Bulgaria After Diplomatic Expulsions
Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said on July 4 that Moscow would respond in kind to Bulgaria's expulsion of 70 Russian diplomats.
Russia's Ambassador to Bulgaria Eleonora Mitrofanova said last week she would ask Moscow to close its embassy in Sofia over the expulsions.
Bulgaria said on June 28 that the Russian diplomats had been working against Sofia's interests. They were given until July 3 to leave the country.
The expulsion, which has severely strained diplomatic ties, is the greatest ever number of Russian diplomats expelled by Bulgaria, which has European Union and NATO membership. Bulgaria has strongly backed Western sanctions against Moscow over its invasion of Ukraine.
European countries have expelled hundreds of Russian diplomatic staff since Moscow launched its unprovoked war against Ukraine on February 24. Russia has reciprocated by sending home diplomats from numerous EU countries.
Based on reporting by Reuters and AP
Uzbekistan Says 18 Killed In Karakalpakstan Unrest
The office of Uzbekistan’s prosecutor general said on July 4 that 18 people were killed during unrest in the Central Asian nation’s restive autonomous republic of Karakalpakstan that broke out last week over plans to curtail its autonomy.
Security forces detained 516 people while dispersing the protesters last week but have now released many of them, the national guard press office told a briefing.
Protests broke out in the regional capital, Nukus, and other cities after changes initiated by President Shavkat Mirziyoev were proposed on June 27 to the Uzbek constitution, including removal of language that guaranteed the right of Karakalpakstan to seek independence should citizens choose so in a referendum.
But during a visit to Karakalpakstan on July 2, Mirziyoev backed off the plans and said the language would not be removed from the constitution.
In a speech reported by his press office on July 3, Mirziyoev acknowledged that there have been fatalities among security personnel and civilians during the rare mass protests in the region, with another report saying that more than 1,000 people had been injured in the turmoil.
Accurate information is difficult to obtain from the region, with locals reporting that Internet and phone services have been severely limited and a state of emergency restricts movement.
In an online statement, Mirziyoev said protesters had taken "destructive actions" in Nukus, the regional capital, throwing stones, starting fires, and attacking law-enforcement personnel.
In a statement issued on July 4, the European Union called for an independent investigation into the violent events in Karakalpakstan.
"We deeply regret the casualties and loss of human life and continue to follow developments closely," the statement said while calling on "all sides" to show restraint to avoid an escalation or further violence.
"The European Union urges the authorities to guarantee human rights, including the fundamental rights to freedom of expression and freedom of assembly, in line with Uzbekistan’s international commitments," it added.
With reporting by RFE/RL’s Uzbek Service, Reuters and AFP
Putin Orders Russian Troops To Press On With Offensive After Capture Of Luhansk
Russian President Vladimir Putin has ordered his military to continue its offensive in eastern Ukraine after the Kremlin’s forces captured control of nearly all of the Luhansk region as they steamrolled through the Ukraine’s Donbas territory.
Putin on July 4 declared that Russian forces "must carry out their tasks according to previously approved plans" and said they should continue to advance throughout the region "as has happened in Luhansk."
Ukraine's forces withdrew from the bombed-out city of Lysychansk late on July 3, prompting Russia to claim full control of the eastern Luhansk region, although Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy vowed to regain the lost ground.
"If the commanders of our army withdraw people from certain points at the front, where the enemy has the greatest advantage in fire power, and this also applies to Lysychansk, it means only one thing -- that we will return thanks to our tactics, thanks to the increase in the supply of modern weapons,” he said in his nightly video on July 3.
After failing to take the capital, Kyiv, Russia revised its military focus on Ukraine's east with the goal of capturing the Donbas, which is composed of the Luhansk and Donetsk regions.
The General Staff of the Ukrainian military said on July 4 that the Russian forces were currently focusing their efforts on pushing toward the line of Siversk, Fedorivka, and Bakhmut in the Donetsk region.
The Russian Army has also intensified its shelling of the key Ukrainian strongholds of Slovyansk and Kramatorsk deeper in Donetsk.
On July 3, six people, including a 9-year-old girl, were killed in the Russian shelling of Slovyansk and another 19 people were wounded, local authorities said. Kramatorsk also came under fire on July 3.
Earlier, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu reported to Putin that the Russian military had taken the entire territory of Ukraine’s eastern Luhansk region, the Russian Defense Ministry said, according to TASS.
In acknowledging the withdrawal from Lysychansk, Ukraine’s military command said it had decided to pull back to save the lives of its soldiers.
Luhansk regional governor Serhiy Hayday told Reuters on July 4 the withdrawal from Lysychansk had been "centralized" and orderly, and was necessary to save the lives of Ukrainian soldiers who were in danger of being surrounded.
"In terms of the military, it is bad to leave positions, but there is nothing critical [in the loss of Lysychansk]. We need to win the war, not the battle for Lysychansk," Hayday said.
"It hurts a lot, but it's not losing the war,” he said, adding that he expected Slovyansk and the town of Bakhmut in particular to come under attack.
"Still, for them goal No. 1 is the Donetsk region. Slovyansk and Bakhmut will come under attack; Bakhmut has already started being shelled very hard,” he said.
Meanwhile, on the diplomatic front, Zelenskiy and Prime Minister Denys Shmygal spoke to a conference in the Swiss city of Lugano about the need for the international community to support Ukraine as it attempts to rebuild from the destruction caused by the war.
Shmygal, in a rare trip outside of Ukraine since the start of the conflict, told the summit that "we believe that the key source of recovery should be the confiscated assets of Russia and Russian oligarchs," which he estimated at $300 billion to $500 billion.
"The Russian authorities unleashed this bloody war. They caused this massive destruction and they should be held accountable for it."
Zelenskiy, speaking via video link from Kyiv, said the reconstruction efforts in his country were a service to the entire globe.
"To rebuild Ukraine is to restore the principles of life, to restore the spaces of life, to restore what makes people human," he said.
With reporting by Reuters, AP, TASS, and dpa
Ukraine Needs $750 Billion For Three-Stage Recovery Plan, Leaders Tell Summit
Ukrainian leaders told a major international summit that their devastated country needs $750 billion for a three-stage reconstruction plan following Russia’s full-scale invasion and destruction of its cities and infrastructure.
Ukrainian Prime Minister Denys Shmygal said on July 4 at the start of the two-day Ukraine Recovery Conference in Lugano, Switzerland, that Kyiv believes a substantial source of funding for the recovery should come through assets confiscated from Russian oligarchs, which he estimated at $300 billion to $500 billion.
"We believe that the key source of recovery should be the confiscated assets of Russia and Russian oligarchs," he told the conference. "The Russian authorities unleashed this bloody war. They caused this massive destruction, and they should be held accountable for it."
President Volodymyr Zelenskiy, speaking through a video link from Kyiv, said rebuilding his country is the "common task of the whole democratic world" and would be a service to all nations.
"Reconstruction of Ukraine is the biggest contribution to the support of global peace," Zelenskiy said.
Some 1,000 people are expected to attend the summit, including European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen, and the prime ministers of the Czech Republic, Lithuania, and Poland.
The conference -- with participants from national governments, the private sector, and international organizations -- had been planned before Russia’s February 24 invasion of Ukraine, with the original agenda to focus on Kyiv’s progress on the path toward governmental reforms.
It is not intended to be a pledging event but instead will focus on setting out the priorities for a rebuilding process set to begin even before the war ends.
Shmygal, in a rare trip outside of Ukraine since the start of the war, said direct damage to infrastructure so far from the Russian attacks amounts to at least $100 billion. He added that Kyiv is planning a three-stage recovery process.
A first stage will be focused on fixing things that affect daily life, such as municipal water supplies.
Second would be a "fast recovery" stage to be launched as soon as fighting ends and would include items such as temporary housing, hospitals, and schools.
A third stage would be aimed at transforming the country over the longer term.
Zelenskiy said the Ukrainian reconstruction plan represented "the most ambitious project of our time."
"Reconstruction of Ukraine is not a local task of a single nation. It is a common task of the whole democratic world," he said.
"We are uniting the democratic world...The outlook of free people always prevails."
Swiss President Ignazio Cassis, co-host of the event, stressed the need to support Ukraine "in this time of horror, wanton destruction, and grief."
Cassis said it was crucial "to provide the people of Ukraine with the prospect return to a life of self-determination, peace and a bright future."
Von der Leyen told the conference that "we know their fight is also our fight."
That is "why we work in these days to help Ukraine to win this war," she said.
British Foreign Secretary Liz Truss told Reuters on the sidelines of the conference that Russia needed to be held accountable for the damage caused by its "appalling war."
"We are looking at options for the deployment of Russian assets," she said, echoing Shmygal's comments on the use of oligarch funds.
"At the same time we are doing what we can to get the Ukrainian economy restarted -- getting those grain exports out of Odesa, making sure we are supporting Ukrainian industry and business to get going," she added.
With reporting by Reuters, AP, and AFP
Danish Police Says Gunman Killed Three In Shopping Mall, Likely Not Terror-Related
Danish police say that the gunman who opened fire in a shopping mall in Copenhagen most likely acted alone and selected his victims at random.
Copenhagen chief police inspector Soren Thomassen said on July 4 investigators do not believe the previous day's attack was terror-related.
Thomassen said three people were killed -- two Danes and one Russian citizen -- and two Danes and two Swedes were hospitalized with serious injuries.
A 22-year-old Danish man was arrested after the shooting on July 3 that caused panic at a mall in South Copenhagen. The suspect will face questioning by a judge on July 4.
Danish police said on July 4 that the suspect was known to mental-health services.
"Our suspect is also known among psychiatric services. Beyond that I do not wish to comment," Thomassen told a press conference.
Based on reporting by Reuters, AP and AFP
Georgians Take To Streets Of Tbilisi In Pro-EU, Anti-Government Rally
TBILISI -- Tens of thousands of Georgians rallied on the streets of Tbilisi, angered by what the opposition sees as the government’s failure to make progress on reforms that can boost the Caucasus country’s hopes of joining the European Union.
Participants of the July 3 event, organized by the Shame civic movement and other pro-democracy groups, also displayed support for Ukraine in its war against Russia, which occupies segments of Georgian territory captured in a short 2008 war.
Protesters holding flares and waving Georgian and EU flags and banners blocked traffic on the central Rustaveli Avenue and demanded the resignation of Prime Minister Irakli Garibashvili and for a new government of “national accord” to be formed.
Georgia has been gripped by protests after EU leaders last month deferred Tbilisi's membership candidacy, recognizing it as a “perspective member” but insisting that candidate status could only be granted as soon as “set priorities are met" and widespread reforms are put in place.
While deferring on Georgia, the EU at the same time formally agreed to take the historic step of making Ukraine and Moldova candidates for EU membership in the midst of the war in Ukraine and Moscow’s bitter denunciations of the two countries’ intensions.
Garibashvili has said his government is "mobilized" to meet the requirements set by Brussels "so that we get candidate status as soon as possible."
No immediate estimate on the number of rally participants was available, but an estimated 120,000 people took part in each of two previous rallies in the Georgian capital.
In one demonstration, Shota Digmelashvili of the Shame movement read out a manifesto and announced the launch of a new popular movement that will include opposition parties, civil society organization, journalists, and labor unions to make demands on the government.
The manifesto asserted that the country’s “main obstacle on its European path is Bidzina Ivanishvili," the billionaire founder of the ruling Georgian Dream party who is widely believed to be the top decision-maker in the South Caucasus country even though he does not hold office.
In May, the European Parliament passed a nonbinding resolution calling on the EU to impose sanctions against Ivanishvili for his "destructive role" in Georgia's politics and economy. Ivanishvili insists he has retired from politics.
In a Facebook statement, rally organizers called on Ivanishvili to "relinquish executive power and transfer it, in a constitutional manner, to a government of national accord."
The statement said a new government could "carry out the reforms required by the EU, which will automatically bring us the status of an EU membership candidate."
"A next stage of our protests begins today. We will not disperse."
The government led by the Georgian Dream party has been hit by increasing international criticism over perceived backsliding on democracy, damaging its EU hopes.
The European Commission said the conditions that Tbilisi must fulfill include ending political polarization, progress on media freedom, judiciary and electoral reforms, and "de-oligarchization."
Georgian Dream officials insist they are following democratic principles and accused the opposition of "plans to overthrow the authorities by organizing anti-government rallies."
Opinion polls show that at least 80 percent of the Georgian population favor plans to join the EU, as well as NATO, amid perceived threats from Russia.
Georgia’s aspirations to forge closer ties with the West have long angered Russia. Tensions culminated in Russia's invasion of Georgia in 2008 after which Russia recognized South Ossetia and another region, Abkhazia, as independent countries and stationed thousands of its soldiers in those areas.
With reporting by AFP
Australian PM Offers Fresh Military Aid To Ukraine During Kyiv Visit
During a visit to Kyiv, Australian Prime Minister Anthony Albanese pledged that his country will provide additional support to Ukraine in its fight against Russia’s full-scale invasion.
Albanese said on July 3 while meeting with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy that the new military assistance will include 14 armored personnel carriers, 20 Bushmaster armored vehicles, and a number of drones, worth a total of about A$100 million (US$68 million).
Zelenskiy said Australia was giving Ukraine "considerable aid, in particular defense support," and that the Australian-made Bushmaster vehicles were “highly valued.” The Bushmaster is designed mainly as a troop-transport vehicle.
Albanese also said Australia would slap sanctions and travel bans on 16 more Russian ministers and oligarchs, bringing to 843 the total number of Russians sanctioned by Australia.
The visit was the first ever to Ukraine by an Australian prime minister. Many Western leaders have also traveled to Kyiv to show support for Ukraine during the war with Russia.
"It is my great honor to be the first Australian prime minister to visit Ukraine," he said.
The trip will "show very clearly to the world the solidarity that exists between the Australian people and the people of Ukraine," Albanese added.
Albanese also visited the towns of Bucha, Irpin, and Hostomel, where Ukraine says Russia committed atrocities against civilians. Moscow denies the allegations, despite widespread evidence.
"Australia supports Ukraine and wants to see justice meted out for the crimes committed here," Kyiv Oblast Governor Oleksiy Kuleba quoted Albanese as saying during his visit to the devastated towns.
Based on reporting by AFP, Reuters, and AP
Ukrainian Refugees In Russia 'Losing Hope' Of Receiving Putin’s Promised Payment2
Putin Orders Russian Troops To Press On With Offensive After Capture Of Luhansk3
Russian Journalist Accused Of Discrediting Army Sent To Psychiatric Hospital4
Interview: Why It's Difficult To Measure Progress In The Ukraine War5
After Protests, Uzbek President Backs Down On Proposed Changes To Karakalpakstan's Status In Constitution6
Parents of Russian Conscripts Fear Their Sons Will Be Pressured Into Joining The War In Ukraine7
Danish Police Says Gunman Killed Three In Shopping Mall, Likely Not Terror-Related8
Uzbekistan Says 18 Killed In Karakalpakstan Unrest9
Live Briefing: Russia Invades Ukraine10
Ukraine Needs $750 Billion For Three-Stage Recovery Plan, Leaders Tell Summit