A dozen Russian athletes have been found guilty of doping and have been suspended for terms ranging from two to eight years.
The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) announced on February 1 that the 12 "participated in and/or benefited from anabolic steroid doping" before the 2012 London Olympics and the 2013 World Championships in Moscow.
The court stripped high jumper Ivan Ukhov of his 2012 Olympic gold medal and banned him from competition for four years. All of his results from the middle of 2012 until the end of 2015 have been annulled.
The court also banned hammer thrower Tatyana Lysenko and high jumper Svetlana Shkolina and stripped them of their golds from the 2013 World Championships.
The cases arose from evidence presented to the World Anti-Doping Agency by Canadian investigator Richard McLaren in two reports in July and December 2016. In the second report, McLaren alleged the existence of a massive state-organized doping program that involved more than 1,000 Russian athletes dating back to at least 2011.
"It was a cover-up that evolved over the years from uncontrolled chaos to an institutionalized and disciplined medal-winning strategy and conspiracy, a cover-up that operated on an unprecedented scale," McLaren told a news conference at the time.
Russian officials have acknowledged there was doping, but deny there was a state-sanctioned program.
The athletes banned on February 1 may appeal the verdict to a separate CAS appeals unit.