Syrian state media say government air defenses responded to an act of "aggression" by Israel against an air base in the central Homs province on July 8.
The nature and the origin of the attack on the T4 air base, which was reported by the official SANA news agency, could not be immediately confirmed.
"Our air-defense systems thwarted an Israeli aggression and brought down a number of missiles that were targeting the T4 airport," SANA quoted an unidentified military source as saying.
SANA claimed that Syrian air defenses hit one of the "attacking planes and forced the rest to leave" Syrian air space.
A spokeswoman for the Israeli military said Israel does not comment on foreign reports.
Fighters from Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, who have fought alongside Syrian President Bashar al-Assad since the beginning of the Syrian civil war in 2011, are also posted at the T4 base.
AFP quoted Rami Abdel Rahman, head of the British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, as saying that the bombardments targeted "Iranian fighters" at the facility.
The Syrian government has accused Israel of carrying out previous attacks on the facility.