World: Researchers Assess How Children Are Used In Combat Around The Globe
A coalition of human rights groups and developmental organizations released a report today about how children around the world are being encouraged, recruited, or even forced to join military units that do battle in armed conflicts. The Coalition to Stop The Use of Child Soldiers has compiled three years of research by groups like Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, World Vision, and the Save the Children Alliance. The report concludes that at least 10 governments -- most of them in African countries -- continue to use children under the age of 18 as combat troops, scouts, messengers, or spies. Outside of Africa, the report says governments that do not directly recruit children sometimes support paramilitary groups or local militias that employ child soldiers. It says scores of armed political groups across the world also continue to recruit children and force them into combat -- subjecting them in the process to rape, violence, hard labor, and other forms of exploitation. RFE/RL speaks with the project's research coordinator, Victoria Forbes-Adams, about the aim of the study and what it reveals about conditions for children in places like Iraq, Afghanistan, and Chechnya.
"What we would like to achieve is for [United Nations] Security Council members to act in a concerted and determined way to ensure that those recruiting and using children as soldiers stop doing that," Forbes-Adams says. "This could be done in a number of ways. First, by dialogue and formulating action plans which will assist those groups in order to get the children out of their group. Then moving on in a graduated way to sanctions, to the withdrawal of assistance and ultimately, if necessary, to prosecutions in the International [Criminal] Court."
The report says the landmark development during the past three years toward ending the use of child soldiers has been growing support for the "Optional Protocol" to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
When the convention came into force in February 2002, only four countries had pledged not to employ child soldiers by ratifying the Optional Protocol. By August, 77 states had ratified the protocol and 115 had signed it.
But Forbes-Adams says questions remain about how the Optional Protocol can be enforced: "The question is then, what recourse is there? What action can be taken? Apart from international disapproval and condemnation and problems of legitimacy, it is not clear what the follow up action might be [when a country fails to meet its pledges under the Optional Protocol.] But a government who does contravene the Optional Protocol does open the door then to international sanctions being taken against it."
Forbes-Adams says the majority of child soldiers involved in armed conflict were associated either with government-backed paramilitary and militia groups or joined armed opposition groups like insurgents in Iraq, Afghanistan, or Chechnya.
"The problem of child soldiers is most critical and acute and numerous in Africa. But we do see child soldiers fighting in different ways in many regions of the world including Iraq, in Afghanistan and in the Russian Federation -- particularly [on the side of Chechen separatists] in the Chechen Republic," Forbes-Adams says.
The study says there were no reports of children under 18 serving in the Iraqi security forces set up in after the collapse of Saddam Hussein's regime in 2003. But Forbes-Adams says her organization is concerned about children being recruited by armed insurgent groups that are fighting in Iraq.
"The research period for our global report finished in March [of 2004]. So we documented what we knew up until that point. Now we have seen the video footage and photographic evidence of young children being involved [recently] in insurgency forces in Iraq -- and indeed, in Fallujah," Forbes-Adams says. "Documentation, written or even oral documentation on a case-by-case basis is clearly and obviously difficult to come by at this point because of the intensity of the conflict and difficulties in gaining access to these parts of the country. But we are very concerned and we will be closely monitoring the situation."
In Afghanistan, Forbes-Adams says there are thousands of children actively associated with militia factions or warlords who are either fighting each other or battling the central government.
"In Afghanistan, in an economy which has been ravaged -- and given the collapse of certain social and economic structures -- not much in the way of employment, work or training is available," Forbes-Adams says. "So some youngsters are apparently attracted by the promise of perhaps power, social status -- the glamour in some ways of armed conflict. So it's the product of a social setting devoid of other possibilities for young people."
Forbes-Adams says a sign of progress toward getting children out of militia groups in Afghanistan has been the work of UN-sponsored "DDR" programs -- that is, projects to demobilize, disarm, and reintegrate militia fighters back into civilian life.
She also welcomes a decree issued by Afghan President-elect Hamid Karzai in May 2003 that sets 22 as the minimum age for recruitment into the Afghan National Army. That decree also prohibits forced or coerced recruitment into military forces.
CHECHNYA AND THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
"If we turn to Chechnya, what we have been able to gather suggests that children are involved with Chechen separatist fighters, with factional and clan-based groups or even in terms of being members of village defense units whose aim is to defend the village or the territory from Russian forces or from opposing Chechen groups," Forbes-Adams says. "The other way in which Chechen young people have been involved is through so-called suicide attacks. They have been known to wear explosives strapped to their waist and so on."
Forbes-Adams says there are concerns about orphans that are being brought into military programs in the Russian Federation, even though Russia does not appear to be recruiting children under 18 into actual combat units.
"There is very little, if any, evidence of the government forces recruiting under-18s into the Russian armed forces -- although there is conscription and there is a possibility [of that happening]. Another issue in the Russian Federation is the sponsoring of orphans -- maybe from the age of 10 up to the age of 18 -- who get kind of adopted into military units," Forbes-Adams says. "Now this is a practice that emerged in the absence of a functioning social services system in the country. It looks as though, in some cases, they may undergo military-style training, drills, possibly even weapons training. And it's not entirely clear what kind of authority structure they are under. But it is a worrying idea that very young children are living within the confines of a military barracks."
But Forbes-Adams is critical about the impact that the military tactics of Russian forces have had upon children in Chechnya.
"Russia's involvement in the Chechen conflict has spawned such serious human rights violations. In relation to children, children have disappeared. They've been detained in unknown places and never reappeared. They have been tortured to provide information. Young boys are often rounded up in these so-called 'clean up operations' and then taken away and detained," Forbes-Adams says. "The Russian government by its military strategy to quash the conflict is creating a vicious circle of violence. It, on one level, is pushing young people into the ranks of the opposition."
Forbes-Adams concludes that child soldiers need protection because they are victims of armed conflicts who, very often, are forced to fight under duress. She says children who legitimately volunteer for combat duty are not capable of making an informed decision. She says they sometimes are heavily influenced by ideological dogma, tribal pressure, or even political pressure.
(The full text of the report can be found at http://www.child-soldiers.org/resources/global-reports)
The Azadi Briefing: Afghanistan Receives Much-Needed Humanitarian Funding
Welcome to The Azadi Briefing, an RFE/RL newsletter that unpacks the key issues in Afghanistan. To subscribe, click here.
I'm Abubakar Siddique, a senior correspondent at RFE/RL's Radio Azadi. Here's what I've been tracking and what I'm keeping an eye on in the days ahead.
The Key Issue
International humanitarian operations in Afghanistan were boosted after the European Union and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) announced they would provide nearly $550 million in funding.
The ADB has approved $400 million “in grants to protect the welfare and livelihoods of vulnerable Afghan people, particularly women and girls, and ease the adverse impact of the ongoing humanitarian crisis.”
The EU has agreed to release more than $149 million of humanitarian assistance “in the fields of education, health, agriculture, and women's economic empowerment in Afghanistan.”
The announcement follows desperate calls for funding after the UN warned that millions among the nearly 30 million Afghans dependent on humanitarian aid will go hungry if they don’t receive urgent humanitarian funding.
“In Afghanistan, WFP has been forced to end life-saving aid for 10 million people,” Cindy McCain, the executive director of the UN World Food Program (WFP), warned on X, formerly known as Twitter, on September 19. “This is what a funding crisis means: no $$, no food.”
In August, the International Rescue Committee, a U.S. nongovernmental organization, said Afghanistan had only received 23 percent of this year's $4.6 billion proposed humanitarian funding.
Why It's Important: These announcements are welcome news for aid workers attempting to save lives in one of the largest humanitarian crises in the world.
The UN estimates that more than two-thirds of Afghanistan's estimated 40 million people need humanitarian assistance. The WFP estimates that more than 3 million Afghans are at risk of famine.
The Taliban's return to power in August 2021 quickly worsened the vast humanitarian crisis millions faced. The impoverished country lost Western aid, which was financing more than 70 percent of the government budget. The economy collapsed as sanctions kicked in against the Taliban leaders.
Yet the UN and international NGOs prevented thousands of deaths and starvation by quickly responding to the humanitarian crisis after utilizing generous funds from Western donors.
What's Next: New funding will help aid agencies prevent a humanitarian catastrophe during the winter, which begins with the first snowfall in November.
However, Western funding for humanitarian organizations in Afghanistan is not guaranteed in the long run. Domestic pressure is likely to prevent Western governments from giving money to a country where the Taliban government has even banned women from working for international aid groups after banning their education and work.
Longer term, Afghanistan's economy is unlikely to quickly turn around under the Taliban's unrecognized government.
What To Keep An Eye On
The caretaker Taliban government is working on a new constitution to establish a permanent government and consultative bodies.
The Taliban’s chief justice, Abdul Hakim Haqqani, is leading the process of writing a constitution, which is under wraps.
“We are still working on the supreme law as we debate [the role of the consultative] councils,” said Zabihullah Mujahid, chief Taliban spokesman. “Once finalized, it will revive all the aspects of governance.”
After seizing power two years ago, the Taliban has imposed a caretaker government comprised of top Taliban leaders, which has been ruling in a legal vacuum by suspending the country’s 2004 constitution.
Why It's Important: Few Afghans believe the Taliban constitution will be framed and adopted in any kind of a democratic, consultative process.
They are concerned that it will be yet another step toward permanently imposing a government by the group that has taken away most fundamental rights and freedoms from Afghans.
“This law is unlikely to be a recipe for a self-governing democratic polity that will pave the way for the international recognition of the Taliban government,” Attiqur Rahman Habib, an Afghan legal expert, told RFE/RL’s Radio Azadi.
That's all from me for now. Don't forget to send me any questions, comments, or tips that you have.
Until next time,
If you enjoyed this briefing and don't want to miss the next edition, subscribe here. It will be sent to your inbox every Friday.
Afghans Who Recently Arrived In U.S. Get Temporary Legal Status
The Biden administration said on September 21 that it was giving temporary legal status to Afghan migrants who have already been living in the country for a little over a year. The Department of Homeland Security said in the announcement that the decision to give Temporary Protected Status to Afghans who arrived after March 15, 2022, and before Sept. 20, 2023, would affect roughly 14,600 Afghans. This status doesn't give affected Afghans a long-term right to stay in the country or a path to citizenship. It's good until 2025, when it would have to be renewed again. To read the original story by AP, click here.
Mahsa Amini, Activists From Afghanistan, Georgia Nominated For EU's Sakharov Prize
Mahsa Amini and the women of Iran were nominated for this year's Sakharov Prize, the European Union’s top rights prize, the EU Parliament said on September 20. Amini, the 22-year-old Kurdish-Iranian woman who died in Iran last year while in custody for an alleged hijab infraction, was nominated by the parliament’s three largest blocs, making her the favorite to be chosen for the award in December. Afghan education activists Marzia Amiri, Parasto Hakim, and Matiullah Wesa were nominated, as were the "pro-European people of Georgia" and Nino Lomjaria, former public defender of Georgia. The award will be presented in December.
UN Records Torture And Deaths Of Detainees In Taliban Custody
The United Nations said it had documented hundreds of cases of torture and other "cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment" committed by the Taliban de facto authorities in Afghanistan during the arrest and subsequent detention of individuals.
In a report issued on September 20, the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) said it had documented more than 1,600 cases of human rights violations -- nearly half of which comprised acts of “torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment” -- committed by the de facto authorities in Afghanistan during arrests and detentions, and the deaths of 18 individuals while in custody. The report covers the period from January 2022 until the end of July 2023, with cases found across 29 of Afghanistan’s 34 provinces.
“The personal accounts of beatings, electric shocks, water torture, and numerous other forms of cruel and degrading treatment, along with threats made against individuals and their families, are harrowing. Torture is forbidden in all circumstances,” UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Volker Turk said in a statement issued with the report.
“This report suggests that torture is also used as a tool -- in lieu of effective investigations. I urge all concerned de facto authorities to put in place concrete measures to halt these abuses and hold perpetrators accountable,” he added.
In a response published with the report, the Taliban-led Foreign Ministry questioned UNAMA’s data and said it had taken steps to improve the human rights situation of detainees.
Since ousting the Western-backed Afghan government and taking over the country in August 2021, the hard-line Taliban has failed to live up to promises of moderation and has instead severely restricted people's freedoms, waged a harsh crackdown on dissent, and reintroduced the militants' brutal form of justice.
Around one in 10 of the violations were against women, the report said. Journalists and civil society members accounted for nearly a quarter of the victims of the violations.
UNAMA considers the extent of torture and other forms of ill-treatment “widely under-reported” and says that the figures presented in the report represent “only a snapshot” of the full scale of human rights violations across Afghanistan.
The report also said that violations of due process guarantees, including the denial of access to lawyers, “are the norm.”
The Taliban claimed the number of reported violations was not accurate, especially the number of journalists or civil society advocates affected. It added that the authorities have taken steps to improve the human rights situation of detainees, and that Islamic law, or Shari'a, prohibits torture.
With reporting by AP and Reuters
China In Eurasia Briefing: What's Driving Beijing's Leadership Turbulence?
Welcome back to the China In Eurasia briefing, an RFE/RL newsletter tracking China's resurgent influence from Eastern Europe to Central Asia.
I'm RFE/RL correspondent Reid Standish and here's what I'm following right now.
What's Driving Beijing's Leadership Turbulence?
Less than two months after Qin Gang, who had been serving as China’s foreign minister, disappeared and was replaced, Chinese Defense Minister Li Shangfu has also disappeared from public view and is believed to be under investigation.
What does the turmoil mean for Beijing’s military and foreign policy establishment?
Finding Perspective: According to a report by the Financial Times, the U.S. government believes that Li has been placed under investigation.
There has been no official pronouncement, but Li has not been seen in public for more than three weeks.
One U.S. official who spoke to the British newspaper said the probe into Li, who headed the People’s Liberation Army’s main department for procuring and developing weapons from September 2017 until last October, was corruption-related. Li previously headed the Xichang Satellite Launch Center for a decade and was also sanctioned by the United States in 2018 for weapons deals with Russia.
This is relevant as August saw purges of generals within the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Rocket Force and Li’s potential investigation could be linked to those cases.
The sequence for Li also has echoes of Qin’s removal in July as foreign minister.
Speculation had run over what could be behind that move, but a September 19 Wall Street Journal report may add some clarity.
Citing “people familiar with the matter,” the Journal reported that Qin was stripped of his title because of an extramarital affair that lasted while he was China’s ambassador to Washington before assuming his foreign minister post.
Senior Chinese officials were told, according to the report, that an internal Communist Party investigation found that the affair led to the birth of a child in the United States.
Why It Matters: The instability at home comes as China’s global competition with the United States is growing and scrutiny of senior officials’ dealings with foreigners is intensifying as Beijing looks to remove any -- real or imagined -- security vulnerabilities.
This has led to some analysis that Chinese leader Xi Jinping may be too consumed with putting out fires at home and that the country’s foreign engagements may suffer. Xi has been less willing to leave the country for extended periods of time, missing the recent Group of 20 summit in India and unexpectedly skipping a business forum at the BRICS summit last month.
Chinese elite politics remain a black box and it’s unclear how the shake ups with Qin and Li have altered Chinese diplomacy. In the case of Qin, it looks to be minimal. He was replaced by his predecessor, Wang Yi, an experienced foreign policy hand that was appointed as director of the Chinese Communist Party’s Central Committee on Foreign Affairs earlier this year.
But the move signals an era of turbulence at the top in Beijing that could continue as the Chinese economy suffers a crisis of confidence not seen since the country’s opening to the world in the late 1970s.
Podcast Corner: The Investigation That Shows China And Russia's Cooperation On Censorship
On the latest episode, I’m joined by Andrei Soshnikov, who heads RFE/RL’s Russian investigative unit, Systema, and we break down our recent investigation based on leaked documents from closed-door meetings between Chinese and Russian officials where they trade tactics and expertise to censor the Internet and monitor dissent.
Be sure to listen and leave a review on your listening platform of choice. I’d also love to hear what you think. Reach out at Standishr@rferl.org
Three More Stories From Eurasia
1. CEFC's Ripples Still Felt In Georgia
CEFC China Energy -- a high-flying Chinese conglomerate worth more than $40 billion that went bankrupt following a string of scandals -- is coming back into focus in Georgia as the prime minister’s past work with the company is being seen in a new light as he strengthens ties with Beijing.
You can read the full report by my colleague Luka Pertaia from RFE/RL’s Georgian Service and myself here.
The Details: CEFC was known for its meteoric rise that left behind a trail of high-profile commodity deals, politically linked acquisitions, and scandals across Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia, and Africa that analysts say are representative of the blurred lines between lofty investments and China’s geopolitical ambitions.
The company has since unraveled in dramatic fashion, and its founder and chairman hasn't been seen since he was detained in China on corruption charges in the spring of 2018.
But current Prime Minister Irakli Garibashvili’s work as an adviser to the board of the firm that managed CEFC’s projects in Georgia before he returned to politics in 2019.
His work for the Euro-Asian Management Group received little attention in Georgia or abroad at the time, but that’s changing as Garibashvili moves the country closer to China, including signing a strategic partnership agreement with Beijing in July. Moreover, since Garibashvili returned as prime minister in 2021, every infrastructure project in Georgia worth more than $100 million has involved Chinese firms.
“Garibashvili's cooperation with CEFC -- however brief -- gave the foundation for further connections and opened new doors for him with the Chinese that we are seeing today,” Tinatin Khidasheli, who was Georgian defense minister from 2015 to 2016, told me.
A particularly interesting case study is CEFC’s investment in the Poti Free Industrial Zone, a tax-free manufacturing base near the Poti port on Georgia's Black Sea coast in 2017.
That deal ultimately fell apart as CEFC’s broader fortunes turned, but as Luka and I reported in the article, the ownership of the Georgian companies involved in the deal can be traced back to close associates of Bidzina Ivanishvili, the billionaire founder of the governing Georgian Dream party and a former prime minister.
Those links were further borne out in the 2021 Pandora Papers leak of offshore financial documents, which also showed the ownership structure more clearly and showed politics and business overlapping in CEFC’s work in Georgia.
Read more here.
2. Why New Work Rules At A Chinese-Run Mine In Serbia Matter
Strict new rules enforced at a Chinese-operated mine in eastern Serbia have sparked controversy and pushback in the Balkan country over concerns that the company is violating local labor laws, my colleague Sonja Gocanin from RFE/RL’s Balkan Service reports.
What You Need To Know: According to an internal document from the Chinese firm Jinshan Construction leaked to Serbian media in mid-August, workers at the site are expected to begin each shift by lining up in formation for inspection by their managers and to greet their supervisors in unison.
Employees of Jinshan Construction -- which manages a large copper mine near the eastern town of Majdanpek -- spoke to RFE/RL's Balkan Service and added that these pre-shift meetings sometimes consist of workers being reprimanded publicly for small infractions and then asked to recite company safety rules.
News of the rules have been criticized by labor unions inside the country and led to an inspection of the mine by the Serbian government.
The controversy has also exposed a wider fissure in Serbia between local and Chinese work cultures and a growing public perception that the country's authorities are turning a blind eye to unlawful practices by Chinese firms, which are becoming increasingly vital to the national economy.
Jinshan Construction is a subcontractor that operates the mine on behalf of the Chinese mining giant Zijin, which took control of a money-losing copper smelter in the nearby city of Bor in 2018 and has since opened copper and gold mines across eastern Serbia.
Serbia under President Aleksandar Vucic has enthusiastically welcomed Zijin and other Chinese firms into the country, and it’s not the first scandal involving the companies in the Balkans.
3. The China Angle On Slovakia’s Elections
Slovakia is headed to the polls on September 30 where populist former Prime Minister Robert Fico -- who plans to reverse the country’s military and political support for neighboring Ukraine -- and his SMER party are forecast to get a leading share of votes.
What It Means: If Fico is intent on delivering on his campaign promises, it may prove more difficult for the EU and NATO to forge unified foreign policy positions on Ukraine and Russia -- and could be the latest display of war fatigue spreading among Kyiv’s strongest supporters in Europe.
The upcoming election will have larger consequences for Russian influence in Slovakia, but as Nikoleta Nemeckayova lays out in a new report for MapInfluenCE, a project tracking Chinese influence across Europe for the Association for International Affairs in Prague, this could also affect relations between Bratislava and Beijing.
Support for China’s peace document around ending the war in Ukraine that it unveiled in February and Slovakia’s relationship with Taiwan, which remains one of Europe’s strongest, are the main issues that could be shaped.
As the report notes, positive attitudes toward China and Russia are most commonly embraced by Slovak political parties like SMER, the Republika, and SNS, which hold socially conservative and nationalist views in domestic policies.
Narratives around Chinese and Russian foreign policy also provide fodder for these parties in domestic discourse where they’re looking to frame the current pro-EU, pro-Western leadership as not following Slovak’s national interests and that they’re instead controlled by the collective West, particularly the United States, the report says.
There’s still lots to be determined at the ballot box later this month. Even if Fico and SMER perform strongly, no winner can rule within Slovakia’s electrical math without a coalition in parliament. That means it’s possible that even with a strong showing, Fico may not claim the right to form a government and emerge as prime minister again.
Across The Supercontinent
U.K. Spy Scandal: A U.K. parliamentary aide, along with another individual, was arrested in March on charges of violating the Official Secrets Act on behalf of China.
The scandal could shape London’s line in China and the news has already been met angrily by British lawmakers, in part due to the six-month delay in the announcement. The aide, a 28-year-old man, was a parliamentary researcher for the Conservative Party, a position that allows access to some sensitive information. He was released on bail and has denied the charges.
Baerbock’s Words: Beijing summoned the German ambassador to China after Foreign Minister Annalena Baerbock called Xi a “dictator,” in the latest flare-up of tensions between the countries.
Another Step From Tbilisi: Georgian Prime Minister Irakli Gharibashvili announced on September 11 that Chinese citizens can now enjoy visa-free travel to the South Caucasus nation, RFE/RL’s Georgian Service reported.
Beijing’s New Man In Kabul: China became the first country to formally name a new ambassador to Afghanistan since the Taliban’s takeover in August 2021.
Beijing did not indicate any wider steps toward formal recognition of the Taliban, but the appointment highlights that China’s practical ties are growing.
One Thing To Watch
Despite tensions staying high, talks are ongoing between Beijing and Washington.
Wang Yi, China’s top diplomat, recently held multiple meetings with White House national-security adviser Jake Sullivan in Malta and Secretary of State Antony Blinken met with Chinese Vice President Han Zheng on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly in New York this week. Wang and Sullivan also held a secret meeting in Vienna in May.
The meetings have set the stage for the revival of high-level contacts that were derailed earlier this year after a suspected Chinese surveillance balloon drifted across Canada and the United States. The talks are believed to be paving the way for Xi’s expected attendance at a summit of Asia-Pacific leaders in San Francisco in November -- as well as a possible summit on the sidelines of the event with U.S. President Joe Biden.
That’s all from me for now. Don’t forget to send me any questions, comments, or tips that you might have.
Until next time,
If you enjoyed this briefing and don't want to miss the next edition, subscribe here. It will be sent to your inbox every other Wednesday.
Afghan Court Hands Down Flogging Punishment For Nine Convicts
Nine people were flogged in an Afghan Taliban-ruled court on September 17. The eight men and one woman, who had been tried and are serving jail time, received 20-39 lashes, according to the information and culture department on social platform X, in the southern province of Zabul. The Supreme Court said the individuals in the provincial court were punished for committing "robbery and illegal relations crimes." Without providing further details, the court said "Tazir" punishment was applied. "Tazir" refers to punishment for offenses at the judge's discretion and usually results in "moderate" flogging intended as a form of discipline and rebuke.
Pakistani Taliban Attempts Land Grab To Boost Insurgency Against Islamabad
A middle-aged lawyer, Nia Beg, is anxious after a large incursion by Islamist militants rattled his homeland in northwestern Pakistan this month.
Beg is Kalash, and he follows the ancient pagan religion practiced in Bumburet and other remote valleys collectively called Kalash in the northwestern district of Chitral, which borders eastern Afghanistan.
He says that attacks by scores of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) on several villages in Kalash pose hard questions about the security of Chitral, which had rarely seen Taliban violence and is one of Pakistan's top tourist destinations because of its unique culture and natural beauty.
"My children ask me, 'How will we now go to school or walk freely in our village?'" he told RFE/RL's Radio Mashaal after the Taliban incursion into Chitral that began on September 6.
Pakistan claimed to have repulsed the attack and forced the TTP militants to retreat into Afghanistan.
On September 6, the military said four soldiers and 12 militants were killed in clashes. In a sign that all was not well in Chitral, the government imposed a three-day curfew in the mountainous region.
On September 10, the military said it killed seven more militants in ongoing "sanitization" operations. Gunship helicopters were also used, which suggests some of the TTP militants were well entrenched.
"Residents of Kalash are extremely frightened because the Taliban are religious extremists," Abdul Majeed Qureshi, a local Muslim leader, told Radio Mashaal.
"We want the Taliban attacks to end permanently," he added.
The once-peaceful Chitral region now appears to be in the crosshairs of the TTP, whose insurgency has grown remarkably after its ideological and organizational ally, the Afghan Taliban, returned to power in Afghanistan two years ago.
Experts say the surprise incursion into Chitral showcases the TTP's attempt to reestablish a territorial foothold in Pakistan.
After its emergence in 2007, the TTP controlled large areas in the northwestern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. But by 2014, Islamabad's military operations had forced it to flee into neighboring Afghanistan, which shares a more than 2,600-kilometer border with Pakistan.
"Chitral's complex terrain and geographical importance made it a significant option for the TTP to challenge the state’s territorial control," said Abdul Sayed, a Sweden-based researcher who tracks the TTP.
"The TTP's attack on Chitral is part of its ambition to establish a stronghold on the Pakistani side of the border," he added.
Chitral, now divided into Upper and Lower Chitral districts, consists of high-altitude valleys in the Hindu Kush Mountains. It borders the eastern Afghan provinces of Kunar, Nuristan, and Badakhshan. A narrow strip of Afghan territory separates it from China and Tajikistan, which gives the region great strategic significance.
"The TTP wants to carve out a new safe haven that could serve its objectives," said Ihsanullah Tipu Mehsud, director of news at Khorasan Diary, a website tracking militant groups in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Mehsud argues that the TTP's incursion into Chitral "is very dangerous" because the group might want to carve out other sanctuaries in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan provinces, which form Pakistan's western border with Afghanistan.
After its emergence in 2007 as an umbrella alliance of Pakistani Taliban groups, the TTP swiftly extended its control over large parts of the South Waziristan, North Waziristan, Mohmand, Bajaur, and Swat districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Years of TTP attacks and the Pakistani Army's counterinsurgency killed more than 80,000 Pakistanis, predominantly ethnic Pashtuns. The violence also displaced more than 6 million Pashtuns.
"The TTP is seeking to restore some of the territorial control it once enjoyed in regions such as Swat and Waziristan," Mehsud said.
TTP violence has risen dramatically since the Taliban seized power in Afghanistan in August 2021. The Taliban-led government brokered negotiations between Islamabad and the TTP, but these ended in November after the TTP formally declared that its cease-fire with Islamabad was over.
According to the Pakistani Institute for Conflict and Security Studies, a think tank in Islamabad, this August was the most violent month since November 2014.
The TTP claimed some 147 attacks that month. During the first eight months of the year, 227 Pakistanis were killed and 497 were injured in 22 suicide attacks, mostly claimed by the Pakistani Taliban.
The Pakistani military and law enforcement have endured mounting losses. At least 120 soldiers and military officers were killed in militant attacks in the first six months of this year. The police, particularly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, have had similar losses.
Rising TTP violence has sharply deteriorated relations between longtime allies Pakistan and the Afghan Taliban.
Islamabad swiftly closed its main border crossing with Afghanistan in Torkham, which is some 400 kilometers to the south. It has also launched a crackdown on an estimated 3 million Afghan refugees and migrants in the country.
“We expect the Afghan interim authorities…to ensure that Afghan territory is not used as a launching pad for terrorist attacks against Pakistan," said the Foreign Ministry in Islamabad on September 11 in response to a Taliban statement demanding the reopening of Torkham.
The border crossing was reopened on September 15.
Sayed said the mountainous border between Chitral and the eastern Afghan province of Nuristan comprises deserted areas known as No-Man's Land.
“This could give the Afghan Taliban the pretext that the TTP has not attacked from areas under their control,” he said.
Mehsud said the TTP attack was also encouraged by the relatively small presence of security forces in Chitral. It is also the only region where the Pakistani border fencing with Afghanistan is incomplete.
"Things are reaching a boiling point between the two countries," Mehsud noted. "Pakistan might launch surgical attacks or kinetic actions inside Afghanistan to target the TTP leaders and their bases."
On September 10, an improvised explosive device targeted a senior TTP commander, Badshah Khan, in the southeastern Afghan province of Paktika.
In Chitral, civilians remain anxious in the aftermath of the TTP attack.
"People are worried that if the Taliban continues to attack, tourists will stop coming," said Ihkamuddin, a local politician in Bumburet.
Taliban Said To Suspect Detained NGO Workers Of Promoting Christianity
Local officials in the central Afghan province where the Taliban detained 18 staffers for a long-serving humanitarian NGO earlier this month suggest the group was suspected of spreading Christianity, RFE/RL's Radio Azadi has learned.
Taliban intelligence and other officials in Kabul have remained silent over the detentions.
The International Assistance Mission (IAM) humanitarian group in Afghanistan on September 15 announced the detention of 18 team members from its offices in Ghor Province between September 3 and 13. It said they all appear to have been transferred to the Afghan capital, Kabul.
IAM and other information suggested the detainees comprise 17 Afghan nationals and a female American surgeon.
Early on September 16, IAM said it still "has not been informed of the reasons for the detention of our staff."
But Taliban officials in Ghor have accused them of spreading Christianity, which can be punished under strict interpretations of Islamic law in Afghanistan.
In a written message to Radio Azadi, Abdul Hai Zaim, the head of information and culture for the Taliban-led government for Ghor Province, confirmed the arrest of the IAM employees and claimed -- without providing evidence -- that they had been promoting Christianity.
The fundamentalist Taliban, who retook control of Afghanistan as U.S.-led international forces withdrew in 2021, have imposed a particularly harsh form of Shari'a law on the country when they have been in power at various points in the past four decades.
The internationally unrecognized Taliban-led government in Afghanistan has been accused by UN and other international officials of grave human rights offenses against non-Muslims, women, and minorities.
IAM said on September 16 that it had inquired with the Taliban-led Afghan government's Finance Ministry and was "working together with the UN and ACBAR, the coordinating body for NGOs in Afghanistan," to seek the release of the staff members.
IAM has worked in Afghanistan for nearly six decades, it said.
"IAM has worked in Afghanistan alongside Afghan communities for 57 years and we value and respect local customs and cultures. We stand by the principle that 'aid will not be used to further a particular political or religious standpoint,'" it said, adding, "All IAM staff agree to abide by the laws of Afghanistan."
U.S. Military Orders New Interviews On Deadly 2021 Afghan Airport Attack As Criticism Persists
The Pentagon's Central Command has ordered interviews of roughly two dozen more service members who were at the Kabul airport when suicide bombers attacked during U.S. forces' chaotic Afghanistan withdrawal, as criticism persists that the deadly assault could have been stopped. The interviews are meant to see if service members who were not included in the original investigation have new or different information. The decision, according to officials, does not reopen the administration’s investigation into the deadly bombing and the withdrawal two years ago. But the additional interviews will likely be seized on by congressional critics, mostly Republican. To read the original story by AP, click here.
Pakistan Reopens Afghan Border Gate
Bustling traffic returned to Pakistan's Torkham checkpoint on September 15 as the crucial crossing on the border with Afghanistan reopened for trucks and pedestrians. Families with children and people seeking medical treatment entered Pakistan while others were returning to Afghanistan. The border gate was closed after a reported gunfight between the Afghan Taliban and Pakistani paramilitary patrols on September 6. The closure left thousands of people stranded and business owners complained of serious losses.
'They Deserve Some Peace': U.S. Envoy Rejects Support For Anti-Taliban Factions In Afghanistan
A top U.S. diplomat to Afghanistan has categorically ruled out Washington's support for a new war in the nation, saying Afghans "deserve some peace" after more than four decades of international conflict ended two years ago when American and international troops left as Taliban militants seized power.
In an interview with RFE/RL's Radio Azadi, Karen Decker, the chargé d’affaires of the U.S. mission to Afghanistan, dismissed any support for anti-Taliban armed factions such as the National Resistance Front (NRF) and the Afghanistan Freedom Front (AFF), saying Afghans themselves have been adamantly against the launch of any new conflict.
“No. Absolutely not! We do not support renewed conflict in Afghanistan. Full stop," she said in response to a question about whether Washington would support these groups.
"The one overwhelming message I hear from Afghans inside the country is no more war," she said, adding that Washington would "support" and "promote" a dialogue among Afghans.
Most of its neighbors have resisted supporting another round of war in Afghanistan after the hard-line Islamist Taliban swept to power in the wake of the final withdrawal of U.S.-led NATO troops two years ago.
After the pro-Western Afghan republic collapsed on August 15, 2021, some defunct Afghan security force members joined the NRF and other smaller groups to attack Taliban forces in the northern provinces of Panjshir and Baghlan. This raised the possibility that four decades of war in Afghanistan could enter a new phase.
Ahmad Massoud, the NRF’s leader in exile, recently visited Moscow in what was seen as an effort to win support for the NRF and pressure the Taliban, which has marked its two years in power so far by severely restricting rights and freedoms, especially for women.
Decker, however, questioned whether the Kremlin could support a new Afghanistan conflict.
"The Russians are kind of busy right now doing something else in Ukraine, so I don't know if that is a realistic scenario," she noted in a thinly veiled reference to Moscow's full-scale invasion of Ukraine, which continues to take a heavy toll on its military resources.
“Any proxy warfare? Absolutely not,” she said. “The Afghan people have had more than 40 years of war. They deserve some peace.”
Decker said that Washington supports a dialogue among Afghans to work out the future of their country, including forming an inclusive government.
After returning to power, the Taliban's internationally unrecognized government has refused to share power with other Afghan political groups and armed factions.
Instead, it has recreated its extremist Islamic emirate. Exclusively led by senior Taliban leaders, the de facto government has banned women from education, work, and public life. The Taliban has also denied Afghans many fundamental rights and freedoms.
Taliban officials, however, point to a commission as evidence of their willingness to embrace reconciliation among citizens in the country.
The commission has invited former senior government members and state officials to come back to the country as long as they do not participate in politics.
Pakistani Police Detain Hundreds Of Afghan Citizens In Karachi
Hundreds of Afghan citizens have been detained in Pakistan's southern province of Sindh, most of them in the port city of Karachi, for allegedly not possessing legal residency documentation. But many Afghans complained they were held by police despite having the correct documents. Sindh Province Governor Kamran Tessori said on September 11 that Pakistan's federal government had decided to repatriate illegal Afghan immigrants.
Taliban Detains 18 Staffers At Humanitarian NGO's Offices, Including American Surgeon
The ruling Taliban has detained 18 staff members of the International Assistance Mission (IAM) in Afghanistan from the humanitarian group's offices in the central Ghor Province, including an American surgeon. The IAM said in a statement on September 15 that it believed all 18 of the team members had been transferred to the Afghan capital, Kabul. The group said the detentions had taken place over 11 days. The long-serving NGO said, "We are unaware of the circumstances that led to these incidents and have not been advised of the reason for the detention of our staff members." To read the original story by RFE/RL's Radio Azadi, click here.
The Azadi Briefing: Shrinking Food Assistance Hits Afghans Hard
Welcome to The Azadi Briefing, an RFE/RL newsletter that unpacks the key issues in Afghanistan. To subscribe for free, click here.
I'm Malali Bashir, senior editor for women's programs at RFE/RL's Radio Azadi. Here's what I've been tracking and what I'm keeping an eye on in the days ahead.
The Key Issue
Millions of impoverished Afghans are bearing the brunt of receding international aid to Afghanistan, the world's largest humanitarian crisis.
International organizations operating in the country have been forced to cut their assistance to Afghans in the fields of health care and food aid in recent months, largely due to funding shortages.
The UN World Food Program (WFP) said last week that it would cut emergency assistance to 2 million vulnerable Afghans by the end of the month because of a "massive funding shortage."
Meanwhile, the International Committee of the Red Cross stopped funding 25 hospitals across Afghanistan on August 31, citing a lack of resources.
The drop in foreign assistance has directly impacted the lives of Afghans, many of whom are reeling from the devastating economic impact of the Taliban's seizure of power in 2021.
"We used to survive on food assistance [from the WFP]," Zarmina, a resident of the northern province of Parwan, told RFE/RL's Radio Azadi. "But now this assistance has been cut off and my situation is dire."
Zarmina, 27, is the sole breadwinner for her family of six. She said her family received around 4,000 afghanis ($50) worth of food handouts every six weeks from the WFP.
"There's no work for me," she said. "It's very difficult. What are we going to do?"
Why It's Important: Declining international assistance will worsen the devastating humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan.
Around 6 million people -- out of a population of around 40 million -- are already on the brink of starvation, according to the UN.
Wahidullah Amani, the spokesperson for the WFP in Afghanistan, told Radio Azadi that the lack of aid will specifically affect women and children, the most vulnerable segments of society.
"My children suffer from malnourishment because they don't have enough food to eat," Hamidullah, a resident of the southeastern province of Khost, told Radio Azadi.
"All Afghans have the same problem. We ask all humanitarian organizations to help Afghans," added Hamidullah, who is the head of an extended family of 20.
What's Next: The cash-strapped Taliban government, which is unrecognized and under international sanctions, appears unable or unwilling to alleviate the economic and humanitarian crisis in the country.
Some Afghans have called on the militant group to do more to create employment opportunities and deliver food to the most needy. "The government should solve these problems and provide a chance for people to find work," said Samiullah, a resident of the eastern province of Nangarhar.
The Week's Best Stories
Afghanistan has seen a surge in the number of female suicides since the Taliban takeover, making the country one of the few in the world where more women take their own lives than men. The spike comes amid the Taliban's severe restrictions on women's lives, including their right to education and employment.
What To Keep An Eye On
China has become the first country to formally name a new ambassador to Afghanistan since the Taliban takeover.
The Chinese envoy presented his credentials to the Taliban's prime minister at a ceremony in Kabul on September 13.
The Taliban government has not been recognized by any country in the world. It was unclear if Beijing's appointment was a step towards formal recognition.
"This is the normal rotation of China's ambassador to Afghanistan, and is intended to continue advancing dialogue and cooperation between China and Afghanistan," China's Foreign Ministry said in a statement.
Why It's Important: It is unclear if the appointment signals China's growing interest in Afghanistan.
After the Taliban takeover, there was a surge in Chinese traders visiting Afghanistan to explore business opportunities and ink deals. The Taliban has boasted of Beijing's interest in expanding trade and investing billions of dollars in Afghanistan's mining sector.
But experts have said that China's relationship with the Taliban has been limited and largely transactional.
Experts said Beijing's primary concern in Afghanistan is the threat posed by members of the Turkestan Islamic Party (TIP), an Uyghur extremist group. The Taliban has been accused of sheltering the militants.
That's all from me for now. Don't forget to send me any questions, comments, or tips that you have. You can always reach us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Until next time,
If you enjoyed this briefing and don't want to miss the next edition, subscribe for free here. It will be sent to your inbox every Friday.
Key Afghan-Pakistan Border Crossing Reopens Week After Gunbattle
Customs officials reopened a key border crossing between Afghanistan and Pakistan to trucks and pedestrians early on September 15, nine days after the Torkham checkpoint was closed when a gunbattle reportedly erupted between Taliban troops and Pakistani border guards.
The gateway is on a key transit route between the tense South Asian neighbors and is a vital link for residents on both sides of the border. It lies at the end of Pakistan's N-5 National Highway about 5 kilometers west of the Khyber Pass summit.
Sporadic closures have raised fears of deteriorating Pakistan-Taliban relations two years after the radical fundamentalist group took control of Afghanistan as U.S.-led international troops withdrew after two decades of war.
The Afghan Taliban's alleged support of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) extremists is at the center of tensions.
The closure created massive lines of hundreds of stranded trucks and left thousands, including sick people seeking medical treatment across the border, seeking shelter in local mosques and other places.
The head of the Afghan-Pakistani Joint Chamber of Commerce said the closure had cost businesses millions of dollars.
The acting foreign minister for the Taliban-led Afghan government late on September 14 urged Pakistani authorities to reopen transit routes. That discussion followed a week of efforts to reach agreement on ensuring security and other aspects of a reopening.
The Pakistani Army took control of the area of Khyber district from Torkham to the Lundi Kotal checkpoint after a firefight on September 6 between Pakistani and Taliban troops.
There were contradictory reports of casualties in that incident, which reportedly began when Pakistani guards intervened after the Taliban tried to erect a structure on the Afghan side of the gate.
Torkham has undergone sporadic closures since the Taliban-led government in Afghanistan took over in August 2021.
In early August, Torkham was closed briefly after another clash between Pakistani border forces and Taliban guards.
Hoping For A Sweeter Future: Kandahar's Impoverished Farmers Increase Raisin Exports
Afghanistan's Kandahar Province exported 10,000 tons of raisins last year, with many of the producers still employing traditional techniques. It's one of the few cash crops left in the country, which is currently experiencing both an economic and humanitarian crisis under the Taliban.
Afghan Soldier Who Was Arrested At U.S.-Mexico Border After Fleeing Taliban Is Granted Asylum
An Afghan soldier who fled the Taliban and traveled through nearly a dozen countries before being arrested at the Texas-Mexico border and detained for months has been granted asylum, allowing him to remain in the United States, his brother said on September 13. Abdul Wasi Safi, 27, is one of tens of thousands of Afghan citizens who fled to the United States following the withdrawal of its forces from Afghanistan in August 2021. The soldier worried that if he wasn't granted asylum, he could be sent back to Afghanistan, where he would likely be killed by the Taliban because he had worked with the U.S. military. Two of his brothers live in Houston. To read the original story by AP, click here.
China Becomes First To Name New Afghan Ambassador Under Taliban
China has become the first country to formally name a new ambassador to Afghanistan since the Taliban takeover, after its envoy presented credentials at a ceremony in Kabul. The Taliban has not been officially recognized by any foreign government, and Beijing did not indicate whether the September 13 appointment signaled any wider steps toward formal recognition of the Taliban. "This is the normal rotation of China's ambassador to Afghanistan, and is intended to continue advancing dialogue and cooperation between China and Afghanistan," China's Foreign Ministry said in a statement. "China's policy towards Afghanistan is clear and consistent." To read the original story by Reuters, click here.
Hundreds Arrested In New Pakistani Crackdown On Afghan Refugees
Police in the southern Pakistani province of Sindh have arrested more than 250 Afghan refugees and migrants as part of a new crackdown aimed at repatriating undocumented Afghans.
Most of the arrests and detentions have occurred in Karachi since September 11. The seaport is the capital of Sindh and also serves as the key industrial and trade hub for the Muslim nation.
"The government has directed the police and other [law enforcement] organizations to arrest Afghans living illegally in Sindh and elsewhere in the country," Kamran Tissori, the governor of Sindh, told journalists on September 11.
Afghan refugees and Pakistani human rights campaigners say the arrests are aimed at harassing mostly impoverished Afghans who cannot return to Taliban-ruled Afghanistan because of security fears or economic reasons.
"The mass arrest of Afghan refugees is based on their racial profiling," Muniza Kakar, a lawyer who has voluntarily represented Afghan refugees arrested in Karachi, wrote on X, the social media platform formerly known as Twitter.
Kakar said that many of the detained Afghans possessed cards issued by the Pakistani government identifying them as Afghans.
"Urgent action needed to protect refugee rights," she wrote.
Afghan refugees in Pakistan complain of harassment and a lack of information and help in completing the paperwork needed for extending their stay in the country.
“After my Pakistani visa ended in July, I repeatedly applied to extend it but the government, unfortunately, has not processed it,” said one such refugee, who said his name was Ahmad.
“The Pakistani government announcement has created huge pressure and most of us now face mental health problems,” he told RFE/RL’s Radio Azadi.
The Pakistani government issued Proof of Registration cards for more than 1 million Afghans that expired on June 30.
Qaiser Khan Afridi, a spokesman for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), told Radio Mashaal that the UNHCR is discussing the issue with the federal authorities in Islamabad.*
"I am extremely afraid of being arrested whenever I go to the market to buy groceries," said Aimal Habibi, an Afghan refugee in Sindh.
Since the early 1980s, Pakistan has hosted one of the largest refugee populations in the world.
But it has not signed the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. It also is not a signatory of the 1967 protocol, which broadens the definition of who can be considered a refugee.
Islamabad currently hosts about 1.4 million documented Afghan refugees. An equal number of undocumented Afghans are estimated to also be living in the country.
*Correction: A previous version of this story misquoted the spokesman for the UNHCR about an extension of the deadline.
At An Impasse: Pakistani-Afghan Border Still Closed As Tensions Rise
Trucks remain stranded amid growing tensions at the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan, following a firefight that led to the closure of the countries' main crossing point.
Support Grows As Hunger Strike By Afghan Activists In Germany Enters Second Week
A hunger strike by a group of Afghan rights activists to protest the anti-female policies of the ruling Taliban has entered its second week as they seek international recognition of the militants' policies as "gender apartheid."
The protest that began on September 1 in the German city of Cologne comes after the Taliban rulers who seized power in the country two years ago banned women from education and from working in most economic sectors. The hard-line Islamist group has also banned women from visiting parks and imposed strict restrictions on their movement and how they can appear in public.
Zarmina Paryani, whose sister Tamana Zaryab Paryani was taken to the hospital on the night of September 9 after her health rapidly deteriorated because of the hunger strike, struck a defiant tone, saying that "until Tamana’s demands are heard, she will not end her strike.”
"She told doctors she could not leave her comrades alone and returned straight to the protest camp from the hospital,” Zarmina Paryani told RFE/RL’s Radio Azadi.
The two sisters and several other Afghan women activists said they launched the strike after hundreds of protests inside Afghanistan and internationally failed to produce any results.
The protest has attracted solidarity and support from rights activists in Europe and Pakistan, they say.
“There is gender apartheid in Afghanistan,” said Ziauddin Yousafzai, the father of Pakistani Nobel laureate Malala Yousafzai, who visited the protesters in Cologne on September 11.
“Under the Taliban, there is no notion of a public life for women,” he told RFE/RL’s Radio Mashaal.
In the Pakistani capital, Islamabad, Roqia Saee, an Afghan women’s rights activist, is leading a hunger strike in solidarity with the activists in Cologne.
“We will continue the strike until the United Nations, countries of the region and the world, and those who support human rights pay attention to our demand,” she told Radio Azadi.
Since July, UN experts and senior officials have said the Taliban’s systematic restrictions on women and girls could amount to "gender apartheid."
The Taliban, however, has so far resisted all international and domestic pressure calling for a change in policies toward women.
Roadside Bomb Targets Pakistani Security Personnel
Pakistani authorities say a roadside bomb blast killed a security officer and wounded several people, including civilians, in the northwestern city of Peshawar. The improvised explosive device targeted a passing vehicle on September 11 belonging to a paramilitary corps deployed to patrol an area bordering Afghanistan. The Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP), an extremist group linked to the Taliban in Afghanistan, has claimed responsibility for the attack.
'Their Freedoms Have Been Taken Away': Afghanistan Sees Surge In Female Suicides Under Taliban Rule
Shabana had a bright future ahead of her. She was studying to become a doctor and preparing to get married.
But the Taliban's takeover of Afghanistan in 2021 turned her life upside down. The militant group's ban on women attending university forced her to abandon her studies. Then her fiance, who is based abroad, broke off their engagement.
Shabana, who was in her 20s, last month committed suicide in her hometown of Charikar, the provincial capital of the northern province of Parwan.
She is among the growing number of women and girls who have taken their own lives in Afghanistan, one of the few countries in the world where experts estimate that more women are committing suicide than men.
The surge in the number of female suicides in the country has been linked by experts to the Taliban's severe restrictions on women. The hard-line Islamist group has banned women from education and most forms of employment, effectively denied them any public role in society, and imposed strict limitations on their mobility and appearance.
Although there are no official figures, Afghan mental-health professionals and foreign organizations have noted a disturbing surge in female suicides in the past two years.
"Today, women and girls make up most of the patients suffering from mental conditions in Afghanistan," said Mujeeb Khpalwak, a psychiatrist based in Kabul.
"If we look at the women who were previously working or studying, 90 percent suffer from mental health issues now," Khpalwak added. "They face tremendous economic uncertainty after losing their work and are very anxious about their future."
Many Afghan women say they have been turned into virtual prisoners in their homes since the Taliban takeover. The vast majority of women are unemployed. And most say they are gripped by hopelessness.
Violence against women, meanwhile, has increased under the Taliban. The militants have scrapped legal assistance programs and special courts that were designed to combat violence against women and girls.
Forced and early marriages of teenage girls have also spiked across Afghanistan, with parents marrying off their adolescent daughters to avoid forced marriages to Taliban fighters.
Maryam Saeedi, an Afghan women's rights activist, says some women see suicide as the only way to escape their plight. "They commit suicide to end their problems, which is dangerous," she told RFE/RL's Radio Azadi.
Maryam, a resident of Kabul, says her 16-year-old sister has suffered from extreme depression since the Taliban banned girls above the sixth grade from going to school. "My sister's mental health has suffered tremendously," she told Radio Azadi. "It is tough for girls to cope after all their freedoms have been taken away."
The Taliban has said that 360 people committed suicide in the country last year, without offering any details. Unofficial figures suggest that the number of female suicides has surged since 2021, when the Western-backed Afghan government collapsed.
The World Health Organization revealed in 2018 that around 2 million Afghans -- out of a population of around 40 million -- suffered from mental distress.
"These numbers are likely much higher today," Action Against Hunger, a U.S.-based nongovernmental organization, said in a statement on September 5. It added that Afghanistan was grappling with an "unprecedented but unseen mental-health crisis."
Khpalwak, the psychiatrist, says that the country lacks the resources to address what he called a mental-health epidemic.
"The number of mental-health patients is rapidly rising, but the treatment available to them is not enough," he said. "Women psychiatrists cannot work because of the restrictions on their work. There is an urgent need to address the growing mental-health crisis."
Faiza Ibrahimi of RFE/RL's Radio Azadi contributed reporting to this story
Pakistani Soldier Killed In Shoot-Out With Militants Near Afghan Border, Military Says
A Pakistani soldier was killed in an overnight shoot-out with militants in the country's northwest, near the border with Afghanistan, the military said. A military statement late on September 9 said the shoot-out took place in Mir Ali, a major town of North Waziristan that served as a safe haven for militants for decades. It said the military had been searching for terrorists there. The shoot-out took place following Pakistan's closing of the key northwestern Torkham border crossing with Afghanistan after border guards from the two sides exchanged fire on September 6. To read the original story by AP, click here.
Afghan Meth Trade Surges As Taliban Clamps Down On Heroin, UN Says
Methamphetamine trafficking in and around Afghanistan has surged in recent years, even as the Taliban has curbed heroin trafficking since taking power, a United Nations report said on September 10. "The surge in methamphetamine trafficking in Afghanistan and the region suggests a significant shift in the illicit drug market and demands our immediate attention," said Ghada Waly, executive director of the UN Office of Drugs and Crime. The Taliban, which regained power in August 2021, announced a ban the following April on the production of narcotics in Afghanistan, the world's main opium producer. To read to the original story by Reuters, click here.
'The Wiliest Is The Winner': Ukrainian Marine Infantry Gradually Breaks Through Russian Defenses2
The Teenage Sons Of Kremlin-Backed Chechen Leader Ramzan Kadyrov Are In The Spotlight. Why?3
Video Appears To Show Smiling Chechen Strongman Kadyrov Amid Rumors Of Failing Health4
The Romanian Ghost Village Where Air-Raid Shelters Are Being Built After Russian Strikes On Ukraine5
Azerbaijani, Nagorno-Karabakh Sides To Meet Again After Inconclusive 'Integration' Talks6
Azerbaijan Launches Offensive In Breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh, Children Among Casualties7
Top Russian Officer Among Troops Killed During Azerbaijan's Attack On Nagorno-Karabakh8
Slovakia, Ukraine Agree Grain Trade System To Replace Ban9
Ukrainian Government Dismisses All Six Deputy Defense Ministers10
Former Head Of Kherson Region Found Dead In Kyiv