The Russian Navy said the missile, fired by the "Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky" nuclear submarine, came down at the Chizha testing range on an island in the Barents Sea.
The submarine used in the test dates from the Soviet era.
The test-firing comes as tensions have increased between Russia and the West over missile defense.
President Vladimir Putin has angrily hit out at the United States' plans to place missile-defense facilities in the Czech Republic and Poland.
On August 6, Russia's long-delayed "Triumph" antiaircraft-missile system was activated around Moscow, in an upgrade of the capital's air defenses.
(compiled from agency reports)
Missile Defense: Not In My Backyard?
AN RFE/RL VIDEO PRESENTATION: The Czech Republic responds to the U.S. missile-defense proposal.